Uses and practical applications Instruments used to measure and display

Uses and practical applications instruments used to

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Uses and practical applications: Instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure meter s or pressure gauges or vacuum gauges . A manomete r is a good example, as it uses the surface area and weight of a column of liquid to both measure and indicates pressure. Likewise the widely used Bourdon gauge is a mechanical device, which both measures and indicates and is probably the best known type of gauge. Fig.3: Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus 4. IMPACT OF JET APPARATUS: The Impact of a Jet apparatus shows the force produced by a jet of water as it strikes a flat plate or hemispherical cup. They can then compare this to the momentum flow rate in the jet. 8
Working principle: To perform experiments, students level the apparatus and zero the weigh beam assembly. They set the flow from the hydraulic bench to maximum, and measure the jet force. They reduce the flow from the hydraulic bench in several increments. At each increment they record the force of the jet on the plate and the flow rate. They then repeat the experiments for different test plates. Students compare their experimental results to those calculated from theory, working out graphs of rate of delivery of momentum against force on the plate. Uses and practical applications: One of the applications of jet impact is used to generate electricity. Impact of jet is used to rotate the turbine namely Pelton wheel in the generator. The water jet is applying force tangential to the wheel. Fig.5: Impact of Jet Apparatus 5. VENTURI METER: Venturi meters are flow measurement instruments which use a converging section of pipe to give an increase in the flow velocity and a corresponding pressure drop from which the flowrate can be deduced. They have been in common use for many years, especially in the water supply industry. Working principle: 9
Venturi meter is a device used to measure the flow rate or discharge of fluid through a pipe. Venturimeter is an application of Bernoulli’s equation. Its basic principle is also depends on the Bernoulli equation i.e. velocity increases pressure decreases. Uses: A Venturi meter is used to measure the flow rate through a tube . It is based on the use of the Ventur i effect, the reduction of fluid pressure that results when a fluid runs through a constricted section of pipe. It is called after Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746- 1822), an Italian physicist. Fig.5: Venturi Meter 10
6. BERNOULLI’S APPARATUS: Working principle: I t is a law which states that for a steady flow of a fluid the total energy (combination of kinetic energy from the velocity of the flow the potential energy from the elevation and gravity and the pressure energy exerted by a fluid)remains constant along the route. So when the velocity increases the pressure energy of the fluid decreases to maintain a constant level of energy. Uses and practical applications: From the energy balance feature of the equation we can say the increase in velocity results in the drop in the pressure at the outlet of the nozzle. Flow through a Siphon: Siphon is used to drain a fluid from a reservoir at a higher level to a lower level. Fig.6: Bernoulli’s Apparatus 11
7. ORIFICE APPARATUS: An orifice is an opening made in the side or bottom of tank, having a closed perimeter, through which the fluid may be discharged. ... Orifice and mouthpiece are used to measure the rate of flow of liquid. The apparatus is designed to measure the co-efficient of discharge of orifice & mouthpiece.

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• Winter '17
• salman ahmed

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