Suggests female and male leaders reflect different leadership qualities Female leaders are associated with interactive leadership which focus more on: Relationships rather than position power and formal authorityTheories on leadership: trait theories (leaders are born)1.Self confidence2.Honesty & Integrity3.Desire to lead4.Knowledge of business5.Intelligence6.DriveTheories on leadership: behavioural theories (leaders can be trained)
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The University of IOWA studies - Kurt Lewin Autocratic (centralised authority, dictate work methods, limit subordinate participation); Democratic (involve subordinates, delegate authority and encourage participation and use feedback) Laissez-faire (group has complete freedom to make decisions and for completion of work). Ohio State researchers identified 2 major behaviours they termed: Consideration The extent to which a leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust. Initiating structure The degree of task behaviour - The extent to which the leader is task-oriented and directs subordinate work activities towards goal achievement. Michigan studies Employee-centred leaders Effective supervisors focused on employees’ human needs. Build effective work groups with high performance goals. Job-centred leaders Meeting schedules, keeping costs low, achieving production efficiencyTheories on leadership: Contingency and situational models of leadershipA leadership model that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific organisational situations Fiedler’s contingency model: Effective leadership is contingent on: 1.Leader style Relationship-oriented or Task-oriented 2.Characteristics of the situation Leader–member relations: how much workers like and trust their leader Task structure: the extent to which workers’ tasks are clear-cut Position power: the amount of legitimate reward and coercive power leaders have due to their positionThe situational model of leadership (Hersey and Blanchard)Links the leader’s behavioural style with the task readiness of employees The directing style- is a highly dictating style and involves giving explicit directions about how tasks should be accomplished. This style has the highest probability of successfully influencing low readiness followers who are unable or unwilling – because of poor ability and skills, little experience or insecurity – to take responsibility for their own task behaviour.Coaching style- the leader explains decisions and gives subordinates a chance to ask questions and gain clarity and understanding about work tasks. This style works for followers at moderate readiness levels.
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