The Union Jack symbolises all this respect for individuality within a closely

The union jack symbolises all this respect for

This preview shows page 13 - 15 out of 116 pages.

respect for national identities are an essential ingredients for effective union. The UnionJack symbolises all this - respect for individuality within a closely knit community. TheUnion Jack or Union Flag is a composite design made up of three different nationalsymbols. The cross represented in each flag is named after the patron saint of eachcountry: St. George, patron saint of England, St. Andrew, patron saint of Scotland and St.Patrick, patron saint of Ireland.The first step taken in the creation of the flag of Great Britain was on 12thApril1606. It occurred when King James VI of Scotland became the king of England as KingJames I. He decided that that the union of two realms under one king should berepresented symbolically by a new flag. Some argues that the “jack” part of the name mayalso have come from the name of King James I. The term Union Flag is used in KingCharles’s proclamation of 1634, and King George III’s proclamation of 1801 concerning thearms and flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The name “UnionJack” became official when it was approved in British Parliament in 1908. It was statedthat “the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag.”VICTORIAN ERA (1837-1901)Queen VictoriaThe Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign from20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity,refined sensibilities and national self-confidence for Britain. Queen Victoria was a popularmonarch who could win the affection and confidence of her subjects. Able administratorsand parliamentarians helped her to achieve great reputation. Two important figures in
School of Distance EducationSocial and Cultural History of Britain (III Semester)Page 14this period were the Prime ministers William Evart Gladstone, and Benjamin Disraeli,represented Whig and Tory party respectively. In 1840 she married her German Cousin,Albert of Saxe-Coburg. Victoria’s marriage to the earnest young German Prince, helped toestablish the modern role of the British monarchy. Victoria and Albert quickly grasped thesignificance of the monarchy’s new functions. It was Albert whose growing dominationover his wife forced Victoria to take an interest in matters, such as science and literatureand even industrial progress. Albert was also interested in the welfare of British peopleand a good companion of Queen. He devoted his life to the service of the English. Heproved to be much better counsellor for the queen than any politician. In 1861 PrinceAlbert died. It was a heavy blow to the queen. For a long time she refused to live a publiclife. The queen died in 1901. Victoria’s reign lasted for 63 years and 216 days, the longestin British history up to the present day.During her long tenure Great Britain witnessed stability, progress, prosperity,reform and imperialism. Great economic growth and further development of science andtechnology occurred in this period. Despite the continued existence of widespreadpoverty, miserable slums and poor working conditions in many industries, the British

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture