120 degrees is level we wanttttt water heaters to be

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120 degrees is level we wanttttt water heaters to be set to 140 degrees can cause burns to skin Math or calculations: IVPB, IV infusion ml/hr, weight based drug calculations and non-weight based dosage calculations, fluid replacement in burnsParkland (Baxter) Formula*4 mL lactated Ringer's solution per kilogram (kg) of body weight per percent of total body surface area (% TBSA) burned = Total fluid requirements for first 24 hr after burnApplication½ of total in first 8 hr¼ of total in second 8 hr¼ of total in third 8 hrExampleFor a 70 kg patient with a 50% TBSA burn:4 mL × 70 kg × 50 TBSA burned = 14,000 mL in 24 hr½ of total in first 8 hr = 7000 mL (875 mL/hr)¼ of total in second 8 hr = 3500 mL (437 mL/hr)¼ of total in third 8 hr = 3500 mL (437 mL/hr)DrugsMannitol → osmotic diuretic; decreases ICP; in burn patients, it is used to maintain renal function. MANNITOL IN BURN PATIENTS- MANNITOL IS USED IN ELECTRICAL BURNS TO d/t myoglobin to the kidneys.Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic. Mannitol acts to decrease the ICP in two ways: plasma expansion and osmotic effect. The immediate plasma-expanding effect reduces the hematocrit and blood viscosity, thereby increasing CBF and cerebral oxygen delivery. It moves fluid from the tissues into the blood vessels, reducing the ICP because of the decrease in the total brain fluid content. Monitor fluid andelectrolyte status when osmotic diuretics are used. Mannitol may be contraindicated if renal disease is present and if serum osmolalityis elevated.
Phenylephrine → vasopressor; used to maintain blood pressure in the treatment of neurogenic shock. Increases HR and BP. monitor for reflex bradycardia, headache restlessness, monitor renal function secondary to decreased renal blood flow.Hydromorphone → opioid for severe pain. Can cause constipationLorazepam → used for anxiety, adjunct to pain management in burns, possibly SCI? Atropine → Anticholinergic; treats bradycardia especially related to SCI, Monitor HR. Adverse effects include dry mouth, urinary retention, blurred vision, tachycardia, constipationSome notes from the bookBurns can occur due to heat (thermal burns), electricity (electrical burns), and chemical agents (chemical burns) causing skin lesions. Burns are classified according to the depth of tissue injuryand the depth determines the treatment.1. First degree burnsor superficial epidermal burns involve the epidermis. Erythema (redness of the skin) and mild pain are present.2. First-second degree burnsor partial thickness superficial burns involve the epidermis and upper dermis. Blistering occurs with moderate pain.3. Second degree burnsor deep thickness burns involve the epidermis and upper and lower dermis. The skin is mottled with blistering and pain is severe.4. Third degree burnsor full thickness burns involve the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Nerve endings are involved and no pain is present. The skin is pearly white and charred.HEAD injuriesPrimary injury occurs at the initial time of an injury (e.g., impact of car accident,Secondary injury

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