moves; and they maintain that neither the eighth sphere nor the sun revolves .... Now, it is a want of honesty and decency to assert such notions publicly, and the example is pernicious. It is the part of a good mind to accept the truth as revealed by God and to acquiesce in it." Melanchthon then cites the passages in the Psalms and Ecclesiastes, which he declares assert positively and clearly that the earth stands fast and that the sun moves around it, and adds eight other proofs of his proposition that "the earth can be nowhere if not in the centre of the universe." So earnest does this mildest of the Reformers become, that he suggests severe measures to restrain such impious teachings as those of Copernicus. * * For Joseph Acosta's statement, see the translation of his History , published by the Hakluyt Society, chap. ii. For Peter Apian, see Mädler, Geschichte der Astronomie , Braunschweig, 1873, vol. i, p. 141. For evidences of the special favour of Charles V, see Delambre, Histoire de l'Astronomie au Moyen Age, p. 390; also Bruhns, in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. For an attempted apology for him, see Gunther, Peter and Philipp Apian, Prag, 1822, p. 62. * See the Tischreden in the Walsch edition of Luther's Works , 1743, vol. xxii, p. 2260; also Melanchthon's Initia Doctrinæ Physicæ. This treatise is cited under a mistaken title by the Catholic World, September, 1870. The correct title is as given
While Lutheranism was thus condemning the theory of the earth's movement, other branches of the Protestant Church did not remain behind. Calvin took the lead, in his [[Commentary on Genesis, >> logosres:calcom01ge;ref=VolumePage.V_1,_p_61;off=1458]] by condemning all who asserted that the earth is not at the centre of the universe. He clinched the matter by the usual reference to the [[first verse of the ninety-third Psalm, >> Psalm 93:1]] and asked, "Who will venture to place the authority of Copernicus above that of the Holy Spirit?" Turretin, Calvin's famous successor, even after Kepler and Newton had virtually completed the theory of Copernicus and Galileo, put forth his compendium of theology, in which he proved, from a multitude of scriptural texts, that the heavens, sun, and moon move about the earth, which stands still in the centre. In England we see similar theological efforts, even after they had become evidently futile. Hutchinson's Moses's Principia , Dr. Samuel Pike's Sacred Philosophy , the writings of Horne, Bishop Horsley, and President Forbes contain most earnest attacks upon the ideas of New[[@VolumePage: 1, 128]]ton, such attacks being based upon Scripture. Dr. John Owen, so famous in the annals of Puritanism, declared the Copernican system a "delusive and arbitrary hypothesis, contrary to Scripture"; and even John Wesley declared the new ideas to "tend toward infidelity." * And Protestant peoples were not a whit behind Catholic in following out such teachings. The people of Elbing made themselves merry over a farce in which Copernicus was the main object of ridicule. The people of Nuremberg, a Protestant stronghold, caused a medal to be struck with inscriptions ridiculing the philosopher and his theory.