Top-level management decision making is generally found in situations in which family or close ownership gives absolute control to owners and businesses are small enough to allow such centralized decision making. Decision-making participation by middle management tends to be deemphasized; dominant family members make decisions that tend to please the family members more than to increaseproductivity.As businesses grow and professional management develops, there is a shift toward decentralized management decision making. Decentralized decision making allows executives at different levels of management to exercise authority over their own functions.Committee decision making is by group or consensus. In the committee decision setup, every committee member must be convinced of the merits of the proposition or product in question.Because Asian cultures and religions tend to emphasize harmony and collectivism, group decision making predominates there. To the Japanese, personal life is company life. Many Japanese workers regard their work as the most important part of their overall lives.Decentralized decision making allows executives at different levels of management to exercise authority over their own functions, and title or position generally takes precedence over the individual holding the job.European companies, particularly in the more hierarchical (Power Distance Index) countries, such as France and Italy, have a strong paternalistic orientation, and it is assumed that individuals will work for one company for the majority of their lives.B. Management Objectives and AspirationsResearch has shown that commitment of workers to their companies tended to be higher in countries higher in individualism (IDV) and lower in power distance.According to Max Weber, at least part of the standard of living that we enjoy in the United States today can be attributed to the hard-working Protestant ethic from which we derive much of our business heritage.C. Communication StylesCommunication in a high-context culture depends heavily on the contextual (who says it, when it is said, how it is said)or nonverbal aspects of communication, whereas the low-context culture depends more on explicit, verbally expressed communications. Low-context cultures deliver their opinion without muchsocial padding. For example, you take your client for a traditional American dinner, which the client barely touched. When asked if the client from a low-context culture asks if he liked the meal, he responds explicitly, "No, I did not like the food."E-mail use and usage rates by managers are also affected by culture. That is, businesspeople in high-context cultures do not use the medium to the same extent as those in low-context cultures.