CS relationships in which people focus on similarities between self and other

Cs relationships in which people focus on

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(CS) relationships, in which people focus on similarities between self and other, and engage in cooperative, shared behaviors. Synchrony. Included in Fiske’s cross-cultural observations of CS relationships are instances of behavioral synchrony , which are generally described as simultaneous, often matching behaviors between two agents (e.g. walking in step). Numerous theorists have suggested that behavioral synchrony increases self-other overlap (e.g. Smith, 2008) in multiple types of social judgments, such as traits and other attributes. Interestingly, the experience of self-other overlap in social judgments (e.g. traits) during synchrony may arise through a literal confusion between the bodies of self and other. For instance, having one’s cheek brushed while viewing another agent’s cheek being brushed at the same time can cause individuals to feel as if they are inhabiting the other person’s body
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EMBODIED PREJUDICE 11 (Paladino, et al., 2010). These judgments of body ownership have been found to mediate the effects of more abstract forms of self-other overlap, such as trait judgments. As mentioned in the previous section, mimicry may serve as a bodily cue that the mimicker is experiencing the same emotional state of the self, which may produce judgments of self-other overlap. Interestingly, however, it has been proposed that synchrony may serve as a “stronger” bodily cue for self-other overlap than mimicry (Smith, 2008). Unlike mimicry, which only involves a content-based matching of behavior, synchrony includes both a content-based and temporal-based matching, leading to potentially more robust self-other overlap effects. Preliminary results also suggest that synchrony may reduce prejudice, in certain cases. For instance, one recent study used a cross-modal synchrony procedure (brushing a White participants hand in synchrony with a Black, rubber hand) and found that this process decreased implicit prejudice towards the outgroup, but only for participants who were already highly prejudiced towards the outgroup (Farmer, Maister, & Tsakiris, 2013). Other bodily cues. In addition to synchrony, other types of bodily cues have been studied, as well. For instance, one recent study found that another CS cue—brief, affectionate touch from an outgroup member—can reduce implicit prejudice towards the outgroup. Furthermore, similar to the proposed effects of mimicry on social judgments (e.g. Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), this effect does not appear to depend on remembering being physically touched during a social interaction (Seger, Smith, Percy, & Conrey, 2014), making it a subtle, yet potentially important route for influencing judgments of the outgroup. An interesting, yet unexplored question in this area is whether subtle, bodily cues may lead to contrast effects when the cues are strongly inconsistent with the recipient’s preferred type of intergroup relationship. For example, a member of the dominant ingroup may implicitly or
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EMBODIED PREJUDICE 12 explicitly prefer an authority ranking relationship with outgroups (one of Fiske’s [2004]
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