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CLEP Psychology Notes

Unpleasant side effects muscle spasms restlessness

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Unpleasant side effects, muscle spasms, restlessness, excessive salivation, convulsions and tremors Antidepressant Drugs – drugs are chemicals that reduce or eliminate symptoms of depression Deinstitutionalization – began mid-1950’s, ordered patients release from mental institutions back to their home communities Free Association – procedure in psychoanalysis in which patients express whatever comes to mind without editing responses Psychoanalysis – resistance is the inability to unwillingness to freely discuss some aspects of one’s life Can range from simple avoidance to anger and outbursts as a result of negative or painful experience proposed to the patient Psychoanalysis Transference – situation in which patients come to feel the same way he once felt about someone important in his or her life Humanistic Psychotherapy – they promote self-examination, personal growth and development, and promote growth and change Behavior Therapy – applies techniques of psychotherapy founded on principles of learning established in psychological laboratories Implosive Therapy – therapy where one imagines one’s worst fear, experiencing extreme anxiety in the safe surroundings of the therapist’s office Contingency Management – brings out changes in one’s behaviors based on rewards and punishments Contingency Contracting – establishes a token economy of secondary reinforcers to reward appropriate behavior Social learning theory was developed by Albert Bandura; it emphasizes observational, or vicarious, learning – also known as modeling. Modeling – acquisition of new responses through imitation of another who responds appropriately Proven effective means of both teaching and learning Internal Locus of control – everything is blamed on self (even if not at fault)
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External Locus of control – everything is blamed on external circumstances, fate, luck, etc. Not willing to accept responsibility Internal Cues – cues from inside that indicate a desire as a result of a physical need External Cues – cues not driven by biological level, no physical need for such desire Punisher – a stimulus that decreases the rate of probability of a response that preceded it Aversion Therapy – linked to immediate discomfort If one receives an electrical shock after drinking alcohol, the shock causes the patient to develop a conditioned aversion to drinking Shaping – reinforcing desired condition with successive behavior until the desired behavior is achieved Instincts – unlearned complex patterns of behavior in the presents of stimuli Learning Set – Harry Harlow Is a Prepared, expected approach to solving problems o Monkey experiment example Latent Learning – hidden learning not demonstrated in performance until reinforced Learning – permanent change in behavior as a result of practice and experience Conditioning and Learning are interchangeable o Conditioning is the most basic and fundamental type of learning Cognitive MAP – mental learning based on situation and physical environment EC Tolman – rat experiment o Rats learned a maze of turns and responses and also the general idea and location of the reward
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Unpleasant side effects muscle spasms restlessness...

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