Suggestibility tendency to incorporate misleading

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Suggestibility: tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections People develop false memories in response to suggestions for some of the same reasons memory misattribution occurs We do not store all of the details of our experiences in memory, making us vulnerable to accepting suggestions about what might have happened or should have happened Visual imagery plays important role in constructing false memories o Bias: the distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences We exaggerate differences from what we feel or believe now and then Sometimes what people remember from their pasts say less about what actually happened than about what they think or believe now o Persistence: the intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget Intrusive memories are undesirable consequences of emotional experiences because they generally lead to more vivid and enduring recollections than non-emotional experiences do Flashbulb memories: detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events Attribute to the emotional arousal elicited by events Amygdala influences the hormonal systems that kicks into high gear when we experience an arousing event; these stress-related hormones mobilize the body in the face of threat and they also enhance memory for the experience o Schemas – mental frameworks representing our knowledge and assumptions about the world influence our perceptions of what is relevant allow us to elaborate on what we learn o Distortions of Memory: eyewitness testimony Loftus: memories can be distorted by later misinformation
Psychology 202 Fall Semester 2018 Eyewitness transference (source monitoring): we misremember where we saw someone Cross race identification: Presence of a weapon o Repression – Motivated forgetting: an unconscious defense mechanism that keeps painful memories out of awareness Elizabeth Loftus: false memory syndrome - Brain Structure o Hippocampus – consolidation o Memory is stored throughout the brain Chapter 9: Language and Communication: From Rules to Meaning - Language: a system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and that convey meaning - Grammar: a set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages - Human Language: Basic characteristics o Phonemes : the smallest units of sounds that are recognizable as speech, rather than as random noise o Phonological rules: indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds o Morphemes: the smallest meaningful units of language o Morphological rules: indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words o Words can be combined and recombined to form an infinite number of new sentences Syntactical rules: a set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences -

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