Tropane ani cholinergic pyridine nicoine quinoline

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Tropane: ani-cholinergic Pyridine: nicoine Quinoline: quinine 68) What are the characterisics of terpenes Characterised by use for its animicrobial and insecicidal properies and high propensity to toxicity Found in volaile oils of plants as monoterpene, sesquiterpene and diterpene hydrocarbons 69) What are the characterisics of coumarins Characterised by heterogenous groups of compounds used for anispasmodic acivity, anicoagulant acivity and ani-oedema efects Synthesised in response to the presence of bacteria/fungi on the plant 70) What are the characterisics of glycosides Comprise of glycone sugar molecule and aglycone (no sugar molecule which can be any natural compound) Triterpene glycosides: ani-inlammatory, expectorant Glucosinolates: digesive, circulatory and ani- cancer Cardiac glycosides: speciic steroidal acion on the heart Anthraquinone glycosides: osmoic laxaive efect 71) What are some issues with using herbal medicines Inconsistencies in the manufacturing process as all plants are diferent 72) What are marker compounds Speciic compound which characterise the herb 73) What are markers of acivity and potency Speciic compounds associated with the speciic acion of the herb Potency: how much of a speciic compound is required to exert a speciic efect Fever in Children 74) At what temperature would a fever be diagnosed > 38 o C 75) What methods are there for taking a temperature Axillary: take temperature under armpit for 3 minutes suitable for all ages Oral: place under tongue for 3 minutes suitable for >5 years old Renal: unideal 77) What are the symptoms of a fever Rising body temperature Hot, lushed face someimes shivery Extremiies feel cool May bring about febrile convulsions when there is rapid onset of fever 78) What are the treatments for fever in children Remove 1 layer of clothing Ensure plenty of luid intake Reduce acivity Consider medicaions if paient is miserable or temp. > 38.5 o C Paracetamol or ibuprofen 79) What consideraions should be taken when providing medicaion Paracetamol 15 mg/kg – note: not fat soluble use ideal weight if obese o Every 4 to 6 hrs max. 60 mg/kg o Use ater 1 month Ibuprofen 5-10 mg/kg o Every 6-8 hrs (max 4 doses a day) o Max 1200 mg a day if > 30 kg o Use ater 3 months Both have slight risk of asthma Aspirin can cause Reye’s syndrome – don’t take Common Cold 80) What are the symptoms of a common cold Dry or sore throat: irst sign Producive cough Headache Runny/congested nose Sneezing Downloaded by jh iu ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|5120665
Hoarseness Note: viral has a ield efect, bacterial oten local efect 81) What non-pharmacological treatments are available for the common cold Saline nasal spray Vaporisers Hydraion Rest 82) What consideraions should be made when recommending cold medicaions Should not be provided to children aged under 6 Ages 6-12 should be carefully monitored Consider dosing with a syringe Treatments are only symptomaic 83) Under what circumstances should a referral be

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