followers, meet their developmental needs, and encourage new approaches and more effort toward problem solving (Selzer and Bass, 1990). One may argue that transactional leadership style , which is based on an exchange of reward and work, is more suited to organizational processes, whereas transformational leadership is useful when one is concerned with relations. Two factors linked with projects underline the importance of management and leadership roles in project performance. First, the project has to manage teams comprising of different disciplines, and second, projects are characterized with complexity, risk, unknowns, and uncertainties. Management functions such as organization, planning, and control are at the core of an efficient and effective use of resources in projects. Leadership assumes similar importance due to project team composition and challenges associated with it. Referring to other studies (Briner et al., 1996; Cleland, 1999; Turner and Cochrane, 1993; Norrie and Walker, 2004) suggested that project management, by definition, is about implementing a change program. Consequently, leadership is considered a determinant of success as it provides vision and ability to cope with change (Kotter, 1990, 1999). As Turner and Müller (2005) observed, many research studies have discussed the importance and/or style of project leadership in determining project performance (Wirth, 1992; Cleland, 1995; Day, 1998; Thamhain, 1999; Thite, 1999; Weiss and Anderson, 2003; Christensen and Walker, 2004; Keegan and Den Hartog, 2004; Leban and Zalauf, 2004); however, there is no definitive skill and leadership style mix that is appropriate for handling different types of projects, and project leadership orientation is not related to project structure (Lee-Kelly and Leong, 2003). Keegan and Hartog (2004), presenting a different perspective, concluded that there are no significant differences between perceived leadership styles of line managers and project managers in terms of their transformational leadership behavior. Keegan and Hartog suggested that new leadership theories are to be developed for new forms of organizing with multiple forms of governance, commonly associated with project management. People-Related Project Management Enablers and Barriers Itiscommonknowledgethatallprojects, bydefinition, havecertain common characteristics and processes. Consequently, people- related management and leadership roles and responsibilities of the project manager, to a great extent, are common to projects. In this section, we will use the literature review to identify people-related enablers and barriers of project performance. Among several factors of project success, top management s u pp o r t a n d a c le a r defini t io n o f a p r o j ec t ’ s mi s sio n a r e iden t ifie d as some of the important enabling factors. Early studies on project success identified success factors, which include clearly defined goals, top management support of resources, detailed plan and implementation processes, consultation with clients and stakeholders to determine expectations, monitoring andfeedback, adequate
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