Output 2 pyruvates 2 atp 2 nadh electron carriers

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Output: 2 pyruvates, 2 ATP, 2 NADH (electron carriers) Glycogenesis o Most body cells don’t store much glucose because it will put water into the cell via osmosis o Glucose is stored as a larger molecule called glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles o Glycogenesis is the process of combining glucose molecules into glycogen molecules for storage o **This is not a step in cellular respiration; this is just to show what happens when you take in more glucose than needed** Glycogenolysis o When the cell needs glucose, it breaks glycogen down again into glucose o The glycogen goes through the process of glycolysis to be broken down into pyruvate Linking step or Bridge Reaction Takes place in the mitochondrial matrix of the cell o Most interior chamber of the mitochondria Input: 2 pyruvates Output: 2 acetyl coA, 2 NADH Pyruvate leaves the cytoplasm and enters the matrix of the mitochondria o Carbon dioxide is removed to form acetic acid o Acetic acid is combined with coenzyme A to form acetyl CoA 1 glucose > 2 molecules acetyl CoA Because remember, 1 glucose was broken down into 2 pyruvates during glycolysis Krebs Cycle (mitochondrial matrix) Also called the Citric Acid Cycle Takes place in the mitochondrial matrix Input: 2 acetyl CoA, 2 NADH o Reaction has to happen twice; one for each acetyl CoA o Produce 3 NADH + H + , 1 FADH, 2 CO2, 1 ATP with one cycle of the reaction Overall output: 6 NADH, 2 FADH, 2 ATP
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18 o NADH and FADH: electrons are carried to the oxidation phosphorylation For each glucose (2 turn of the Krebs Cycle, glycolysis and linking step) o 10 NADH o 2 FADH2 o 4 ATP o 6 CO2 o Remember 2 NADH and 2 ATP from glycolysis, and 2 NADH from the linking step Oxidative Phosphorylation (across inner mitochondrial membrane) > 90% of ATP gets produced here Also called the electron transport chain Occurs across the inner mitochondrial membrane. 90% of ATP produced from cellular respiration occurs in this step Electron transport molecules pass the electrons down a chain, with each being reduced and then oxidized. o These electrons are being carried by NADH and FADH2. These electrons get handed off to one protein to the next down the chain. As this happens, each one of these transfers releases energy as potential energy (chemical energy in chemical bonds or energy based on location). o Each protein is more electronegative than the last Electronegativity: the ability for an electron to attract or hold on to something o Once an electron is transferred to an electronegative atom, it’s harder for them to be taken away Oxygen is going to accept hydrogen electrons to form water at the end of the chain. If you don’t have oxygen at the end of the chain to accept these electrons, none of the reactions occur.
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