Them to flow freely and take up all available space

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them to flow freely and take up all available space - Structure of Atoms - 3 types of particles - Protons (+ charge) - Neutrons (no charge) - Electrons (- charge) - Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus - Electrons in electron cloud around the nucleus - Atomic Mass - 1 atomic mass unit (amu) = approx. 1.66 x 10^-24 grams (0.00000000000000000000000166 grams - Proton: approx. 1 amu - Neutrons: approx. 1 amu - Electrons: approx. 0 amu - Atomic mass of atom = # protons + # neutrons - Atomic number = # of protons (defines the element) - Three rock types - Igneous rocks - Solidification of molten rock - Minerals grow when cooled below melting temperature - Two categories of igneous rock: - Below the earth’s surface - Molten material: magma
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- Rock: intrusive - Above the earth’s surface - Molten material: lava - Rock: extrusive or volcanic - Metamorphic rocks - Alteration of any type of rock from heat and pressure - Minerals change to other minerals - Example: slate, schist, and marble - Sedimentary rocks - Consolidation of rock fragments produced from weathering - Example: sandstone - Form at the surface of the earth, wherever fragments are transported (land or water) - The Rock Cycle - - Age of the earth: 4.56 billion years - Oldest Earth minerals: 4.4 billion years - Oldest Earth rocks: 4.0 billion years - Formation of the Earth and Solar System - 99.85% of the mass of the solar system is in the sun - Solar system is disk-shaped planetary orbits lie in approximately the same plane - Planets revolve around the sun in the same direction - Two distinctly different types of planets - Inner four: Terrestrial/rocky - Outer four: Jovian/gaseous
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- Nebular hypotheses (Kant - Laplace hypothesis) - Start with formless, lightless, slowly rotating cloud of gas and dust (stars that you can see are behind the cloud, not in the cloud; the cloud has no heat) - Collapse begins (infall): triggered by shockwave? Most material falls to center - form proto-sun; two effects: - Spin rate increases causing cloud around the sun to flatten into a disk - Heating from compaction and friction; proto-sun forms and begins to glow; all mate- rial in nebula vaporizes - Infall decreases: gas depleted & centrifugal force; cooling of the nebula around proto- sun; temperature gradient: hotter near the sun - Condensation (solidification) begins - 2000 K: none - 1600-1400 K: metals, metallic oxides, Al, Ti, Ca, Fe, Ni - 1300 K: stony material, silicate minerals - ———————Ice line——————— - 300-100 K: ice (water, ammonia, methane) - Decreasing temperature from Mercury - Neptune - Ice line is after mars - Left with rotating disk of gas and dust: accretion disk - Solid material sticks together and accretes to form progressively larger bodies - Electrostatic forces - Random collisions - Gravitational forces (when bodies are larger) - Form planetesimals - *Refer to diagram on powerpoint about accretion disk* - Last stages characterized by large impacts - Recorded by cratered surfaces - Period of heavy bombardment 4.56 - 3.8 bya - Age of the Earth and Solar System - Allende Meteorite - CAIs: Calcium and Aluminum-rich Inclusions - Represent condensation from original solar nebula - Dates at 4.56 bya - radiometric date - Within 50-100 million years - Earth/moon - fully formed -
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