and the countries in the second group are often called satellites because they

And the countries in the second group are often

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and the countries in the second group are often called satellites because they are in the orbit of the metropolitan economies. The same idea is conveyed by simply saying that the underdeveloped countries are depend- encies of the metropolitan capitalist economies. When a child or the young of any animal species ceases to be dependent upon its mother for food and protection, it can be said to have developed in the direction of maturity. Dependent nations can never be considered developed. It is true that modem conditions force all countries to be mutually interdependent in order to satisfy the needs of their citizens; but that is not incompatible with economic independence because economic independence does not mean isolation. It does, however, require a capacity to exercise choice in external relations, and above all it requires that a nation’s growth at some point must become self-reliant and self-sustaining. Such things are obviously in direct contradiction to the economic de- pendence of numerous countries on the metropoles of Western Europe, North America, and Japan. It is also true that metropoles are dependent on the wealth of the ex- ploited portions of the world. This is a source of their strength and a potential weakness within the capitalist/imperialist system, since the peas- ants and workers of the dependencies are awakening to a realization that it is possible to cut the tentacles which imperialism has extended into their countries. However, there is a substantial difference between the depend-
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26 HOW EUROPE UNDERDEVELOPED AFRICA ence of the metropoles on the colonies and the subjugation of the colonies under a foreign capitalist yoke. The capitalist countries are technologically /^timore advanced and arę therefore the sector of the imperialist-system which ^determined the direction of change. A striking example of this effect is the fact that synthetic fabrics manufactured in the capitalist metropoles have begun to replace fabrics made from raw material grown in the A colonies. In other words, (within certain limits) it is the technologically i advanced metropoles who can decide when to end their dependence on the f·&tolonies in a particular sphere. When that happens, itJś the colony or Ineo-colon^ which goes begging cap in hand for a reprieve and a new i quota. It is for this rgaşon that a formerly colonized nationbas no hope of developing until it breaks effectively with the vicious circle of dependence ƒ and exploitation which characterizes imperialism. At 1116 social and cultural level, there are many features which aid in - keeping underdeveloped countries integrated into the capitalist system and at the same time hanging on to the apron strings of the metropoles. The Christian church has always been a major instrument for cultural penetra- tion and cultural dominance, in spite of the fact that in many instances Africans sought to set up independent churches. Equally important has been the role of education in producing Africans to service the capitalist system and to subscribe to its values. Recently, the imperialists have been
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