Lastly, the researchers used the Pearson r correlating coefficient to interpret the statistics
then correlate the data collected from the respondents.
Statistical Treatment
Since this is a correlational study, and the study is finding the relationship of the
independent variable or the predictor, and the dependent variable or the criterion
measure, the researchers decided to use Pearson r correlating coefficient. Pearson r
correlating coefficient was used to interpret whether the variables are correlated. Pearson r
correlating coefficient was used because it is one of the most common statistics of
association or relationship. Technically, it is defined as the ratio of co-variance with the
standard deviation of the x and the y variables. The formula used was:
Where:
x = students’ perceived level of sleep deprivation (x or independent variable)
y = academic performance of the student (y or dependent variable)
Mx = Mean of x Values
My = Mean of y Values
x - Mx & y – My = Deviation scores
(x - Mx)^2 & (y - My)^2 = Deviation Squared
(x - Mx)(y - My) = Product of Deviation Scores
r = the Pearson r Correlating Coefficient
Interpretations of Pearson r

Values
Interpretation
0.91 – 1.00
Very High Relationship
0.71 – 0.90
High Relationship
0.41 – 0.70
Marked and Substantial
0.20 – 0.40
Present but Slight
0.00 – 0.19
Negligible
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
This section depicts the discussion of data collected from the study. It will have
tables, descriptive analysis, and interpretation of data. Also, the statistical data will be
interpreted in this section.
Table 1.1
Perceived Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Students’ Class Participation
Statements
4
3
2
1
WM
Verbal
Description
1. I feel sleepy during discussion.
18
16
1
0
3.5
Strongly
Agree
2. I get easily distracted and I lack
focus.
19
14
2
0
3.5
Strongly
Agree
3. I have difficulty in understanding
class discussion; thus, unable to
answer my teachers’ questions.
25
9
1
0
3.7
Strongly
Agree
4. I feel agitated during class.
22
12
1
0
3.6
Strongly
Agree
5. I get mental block while answering a
question by my teacher.
15
17
3
0
3.3
Strongly
Agree
GENERAL WEIGHTED MEAN
3.5
Strongly
Agree
Table 1.1 shows the weighted mean of each of the perceived effects of sleep
deprivation on the students’ class participation. As shown in the table all the respondents
strongly agreed that they experienced every statement above often when they are sleep
deprived.
In a report done by Kelly, W. (2009), it showed that lack of sleep affects the
students’ performance in class. Her study showed that the students that slept for 9 hours
or more in 24 hours had higher grade point average than the students that had short
amount of sleep. The students that had less sleep showed signs of uneasiness, less
inventive, more psychotic, and also more inclined to daydream.
As the table shown, the respondents strongly agreed in every statement but the
statement that had the highest weighted mean with a score of 3.7 is “having difficulties in
understanding the class discussion. In conclusion, the respondents responded that the

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- Psychology, Correlational Study of Sleep Deprivation