These only contain c and h no oxygen or nitrogen they

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These only contain C and H, no Oxygen or Nitrogen They can be straight chains, branched chains, or rings Similarity between fats and gasoline? This fatty acid has a hydrocarbon tail and a head of glycerin
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Isomers: Same molecular formula, different structure Structural Isomers : Geometric Isomers : Enantiomers : mirror images e.g., C 4 H 10 (Butane family)
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Isomers can have very different chemical properties
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Functional groups Sex Hormones Sex Hormones: these two have the same ring structure but different functional groups
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Hydroxyl: -OH (alcohols) OH - = hydroxide ion -OH = hydroxyl group Hydroxl groups provide polarity to the molecule to which they are attached, making alcohols, for example, soluble in water When there’s oxygen, there’s usually polarity
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Carbonyl: =CO Aldehyde (end of the chain) Ketone (carbonyl in the middle of carbon chain) The carbonyl group provides polarity to the molecule to which it is attached
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Carboxyl: -COOH (carboxylic acids) Amino acid (glycine) Why are these called acids? They are both polar and ionic —highly hydrophilic Carboxyl groups ionize. They drop an H + , and thus they make solutions they are in more acidic.
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Amino: -NH2 (amines) Glycine NH 2 NH 3 + Amino groups are basic. Why’s that? Because they can pick up H + ions Amino groups are ionic and polar—highly hydrophilic
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Sulfhydryl: -SH (thiols) Cysteine , like O, needs 2 valence e - ) These are especially important in the 3D structure of proteins, as we will see.
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Phosphate: ---OPO 3 2- They are both polar and ionic —highly hydrophilic As a functional group of ATP, they play a very important role in energy production and use They contributes a strong negative charge to the molecule to which they are attached These are especially important in the structure of nucleic acids, ATP, and membranes, as we will see.
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Organic Phosphate: PO 4 -3 Phospholipid Nucleotides: thymine, adenine, cytosine, guanosine (organic phosphate derives from inorganic phosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4 )
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Figure 4.9g Methyl STRUCTURE EXAMPLE NAME OF COMPOUND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES Methylated compounds 5-Methyl cytidine Addition of a methyl group to DNA, or to molecules bound to DNA, affects the expression of genes. Arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function. Methyl groups are classically non- polar, i.e., hydrophobic
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