113 overhead the overhead for facilitating

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between neighboring nodes. 1.1.3. Overhead The overhead for facilitating cryptographic SAs can themselves be classi- fied into several categories like 1) one-time (or infrequent) out-of-network bandwidth overhead for distributing secrets to (or signing public keys of) mobile devices; 2) overhead for storing secrets/certificates; 3) in-network bandwidth overhead for the appended cryptographic authentication, and exchanging certificates (if necessary); and 4) computational overhead for evaluating SAs. In general, different types of overhead have different as- sociated costs. Furthermore, the overhead for establishing SAs may also differ for different network layers. 1.2. Organization In the rest of this chapter several key distribution schemes are reviewed. Their suitability for different types of SAs for different layers of MANETs are explored. In Section 2 we provide an overview of the application Copyright © 2010. World Scientific Publishing Company. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 2/16/2016 3:46 AM via CGC-GROUP OF COLLEGES (GHARUAN) AN: 340572 ; Beyah, Raheem, Corbett, Cherita, McNair, Janise.; Security in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Account: ns224671
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32 M. Ramkumar model and a brief description of more common key distribution strategies based on asymmetric cryptographic primitives. In Section 3 schemes that employ only symmetric cryptographic primitives are explored in greater detail. In Section 4 different types of overhead mandated for employing cryptographic SAs and associated costs are investigated, considering differ- ent constraints unique to MANET devices. Good choice of key distribution schemes for MANETs, the mechanics of how they can be used for efficiently securing MANETs, and different MANET routing protocols, are discussed in Section 5. Conclusions are offered in Section 6. 2. Key Distribution Schemes Any discussion on key distribution strategies is perhaps incomplete with- out an understanding of the application model that mandates the very need for the key distribution scheme. As a generic example that should cover any MANET based network, we shall consider a scenario involving a ficti- tious wide-area voice-and-data service provider, Tingular, using MANETs to provide services to mobile users. Due to the low investment required in communication infrastructure, Tingular aims to provide such services at a low cost. For example, Tingular may employ wireless access points de- ployed at homes as gateways for Internet access. In exchange, subscribers who offer use of their access point to mobile Tingular users, may be pro- vided Tingular services for free (or at a lower cost). Subscribers to the Tingular network can use any handheld computer that 1) can house Tingular’s SIM card (subscriber identification module), and 2) has WiFi capabilities to exchange packets with other mobile com- puters and gateways. Inducting a subscriber into the Tingular network
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