Rubin barnett saving afghanistan foreign affairs

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Rubin, Barnett, “Saving Afghanistan,” Foreign Affairs , January/February 2007 Shahrani, M. Nazif, “State Building and Social Fragmentation in Afghanistan: A Historical Perspective” in Ali Banuazizi and Myron Weiner (eds.), The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan (Lahore: Vanguard Books, 1987) Suhrke, Astri, “A Contradictory Mission? NATO from Stabilization to Combat in Afghanistan,” International Peacekeeping , vol. 15, no. 2, April 2008 Tadjbakhsh, Shahrbanou and Michael Schoiswohl, “Playing with Fire? The International Community’s Democratization Experiment in Afghanistan,” International Peacekeeping, vol. 15, no. 2, April 2008 Tanaka, Koichiro, “State-Reconstruction Process from the Perspective of the Peace Process” in NIRA, Kinhide Mushakoji, and Yoshio Endo (eds.), Afghanistan: Challenges for Rebuilding and Reconstruction (Nipponhyouronshay, 2004)
CHAPTER 2 Examining Regime Change Dynamics in Afghanistan through Relationships between States and Armed Groups Tatsuo Yamane Introduction How do armed groups as non-state actors influence regional and international security among states? This Chapter examines armed groups as a part of aspects in failed states with focus on the case of Afghanistan, and then illustrates a regime change dynamics in 2001 which was influenced by and emerged from the complex relationships between states and armed groups. The ‘failure’ 1 of the state, which cannot provide the common goods for its stakeholders also creates a fertile soil for acts of violence and drives marginalized people to mobilize armed groups for their own profits. These armed groups often collude regionally and internationally with each other across the state borders in terms of resources through personnel, substances, and information. In this context, regional/international security is likely to deteriorate or be threatened by armed groups as non-state actors, as well as states. In some cases, armed groups, which antagonize a domestic government, receive resources from countries that recognize the government as a security threat. These kinds of armed conflict show a characteristic of ‘proxy war’ among states implicitly, although ‘internal war’ or ‘civil war’ between the government and anti-government armed groups is more explicit. On the other hand, rivalry among armed groups over their own profits repeatedly threatens regional/international security, adding to complex conflicts between states and ‘non-state’ actors. In the case of Afghanistan, as a response to the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001, international security forces conducted the change of the Taliban regime coercively for the purpose of securing international peace and security authorized by the U.N. Security Council. The Taliban regime, which sheltered Osama bin Laden, was regarded as fertile soil for act of violence by al Qaeda, an international 1 For Example, Robert I. Rotberg, “The Failure and Collapse of Nations: States Breakdown, Prevention, and Repair,” in Robert I. Rotberg (ed.), When States Fail (Princeton University Press, 2004) pp. 1-50; I

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