inhibition of bacterial adhesion in the skin of the immersion vaccinated eel

Inhibition of bacterial adhesion in the skin of the

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inhibition of bacterial adhesion in the skin of the immersion-vaccinated eel (Mano et ai, 1996). Formalin-inactivated sonicated and whole-cell preparations of Fla. columnare were applied intraperitoneally and by immersion to tilapia with booster doses after 4 weeks (Grabowski et al., 2004). The data revealed that use of formahsed sonicated cells in FCA injected by i.p. led to a significant humoral immune response (titre = 1:11,200 by ELISA after 2 weeks; titre = 1:30,600 after boosting). However, there was no information about protection. Fla. psychrophilum has been investigated as a vaccine candidate: by passive immunisation (LaFrentz et al., 2003); with formalin-inactivated cells administered orally at 0.1-0.2 g/kg body weight offish for 2 weeks or on 5 days over 2 weeks which led to good protection of ayu after immersion challenge (Kondo et al, 2003); formalin-inactivated cells with water-soluble adjuvant, i.e. Montanide IMS 1312 administered i.p. to ayu which led to an RPS of 33% and 39.6% (Nagai et al., 2003); by use of surface antigens (Dumetz et al., 2006); and by use of an auxotroph, i.e. an aroA mutant (Thune et al., 2003). Administration of a formahn-killed whole vaccine in FCA intraperitoneally led to high serum and mucosal antibody titres in 9 weeks, and commendable protection (RPS = 83%) (LaFrentz et al, 2002). In parallel, formalin- and heat-inactivated whole-cell preparations of two serotypes in oily adjuvant led to high antibody titres, but not in the skin mucus, and protection (Madetoja et al., 2006). Similarly, use of OMP administered intraperitoneally led to a demonstrable immune response and protection of ayu (RPS = 64 and 71%) and rainbow trout (RPS = 93 and 95%) (Rahman et al, 2002). A surface protein, coined PI8, was purified and the responsible gene identified which encoded a 166 amino acid OmpH-like protein. In vaccine trials, using rainbow trout and intraperitoneal admin- istration with FCA, a high antibody titre developed and protection ensued (RPS = 88%) (Dumetz et al, 2006). The auxotroph, which has a mutation in the shikimate pathway, was used successfully by injection and immersion with hybrid striped bass (RPS = 85%) (Thune et al, 2003). Similarly, the use of subcellular components, specifically fractions of 18-28, 41-49 and 70-100 kDa were identified by western blotting in rainbow trout immune serum, and adjuvanted in FCA. Commendable protection was reported after i.p. injection of rainbow trout fry for the 41-49 (RPS = 58%) and 70-100 kDa (O-proteins and O-polysaccharide) fractions with an RPS (for the latter fraction) of 94% (LaFrentz et al, 2004). Certainly, there is evidence that fish respond by producing antibodies to LPS and a ~20 kDa surface protein; the latter of which could be considered for any future vaccine development (Crump et al, 2001, 2005).
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370 Bacterial Fish Pathogens Moritellaceae representative Moritella viscosa Atlantic salmon, which were vaccinated intraperitoneally with an adjuvanted, whole- cell, formahsed suspension containing Moritella viscosa, were protected against subsequent challenge, achieving an RPS of 97% (Greger and Goodrich, 1999). A multivalent (containing antigens to five pathogens), oil-adjuvanted vaccine, which contained
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  • Bacteria, representative, gram-negative bacteria

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