Przeworski examines claims made by Lipset that democracy and economic development are linked. Through statistical analysis, he finds that democracies are equally likely to arise anywhere, but that a number of factors affects the sustainability of democratic and any other type of regime: affluence, economic performance (growth), income inequality, international climate (proportion of democracies in region), political learning (history of overthrowing democratic governments), institutions. Samuel Huntington: Democracy’s Third Wave Samuel Huntington coined the term “third wave” to describe the number of country’s that democratized in 70s and 80s (the first wave being in the 1820s and the second wave after the ending of WWII). He points to five factors: a change in the policies of the Catholic Church, the economic and military failure of dictatorships, the actions of international players, the international demonstration effect , and the accumulation of wealth in the 1960s.
However, Huntington is pessimistic about the prospect of these factors leading to democratization in non-Western countries on cultural grounds. He argues that in Asia, Confucianism is anti-democratic as it values public order over individual rights and harmony over competition. Islam is egalitarian and voluntarist and rejects the separation of church and state. However, these aren’t incompatible with economic development. Giuseppe Di Palma: To Craft Democracy Giuseppe Di Palma offers a voluntarist approach to democratization. He argues that in order for democracy to succeed, all of the main actors must recognize it as the legitimate way of governing and must be willing to halt their ambitions of absolute control in exchange for the opportunity to gain power legitimately: they must transfer their loyalty .