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2 design and development or organisational

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2) Design and development or organisational engineering also occupies an importantposition.3) Because of the very nature of services, R&D projects are often hybrid or compositeaffairs, combining research in a number of different disciplines corresponding to thevarious components of the service in question.4) The social sciences and humanities (SSH) seem to occupy an important place in thesevarious disciplinary fields.Different disciplines, which may be the object of separate investigationsFrom a static point of view, every service activity is a combination, to varying degrees, ofdifferent types of operations or functions based on specific technologies and knowledge(Table 1). From a dynamic perspective, this concept suggests that, within any givenservice, there may be a variety of disciplines likely to identifyproblems and to createsolutions (in other words, potential R&D and innovation activity).
10Thus on the basis of a mechanical interpretation of the functional representation advancedin Table 1, the existence of activities that might aspire to the status ofautonomous R&Dcan be envisaged in the following spheres:1) the operations and sciences and technologies used to process material objects (M(Y));2) the operations and sciences and technologies used to process codified information(I(Y));3) knowledge-processing operations and sciences and technologies (K(Y));4) ‘pure’ service operations (C(Y)) and the corresponding scientific disciplines;5) the operations and sciences and technologies used to process individuals and relations(R(Y) (in reality MR(Y), IR(Y), KR (Y) or CR(Y), depending on the particularrelationship between the ‘relational’ function and the various technologies), as well as6) the operations through which these various types of operations are combined orbrought together (combinatory or architectural knowledge, engineering).Thus each of these groups of operations or functions can be a locus for the developmentof new knowledge and thereby constitute, in a way, a separate type of R&D.The first two groups of operations (M(Y)) and I(Y)) involve the usual scientific andtechnological knowledge (scientific and technological R&D, which are divided here intowhat might be called, to misuse the language somewhat, a ‘material’ form of R&D givenover to material-processing technologies and an ‘informational’form of R&D focused oninformation-processing technologies). ‘Informational’ R&D (computer systems, softwaredevelopment), it should be noted, occupies a relatively important position in services. It isto this category that a large share of the R&D expenditure recorded in current surveysbelongs.The following two groups (K(Y)) and C(Y)) are the locus for what might be called a‘methodological’ form of R&D (focused on the intangible knowledge-processingtechnologies, that is methods) and a “service-oriented” R&D (focused on the expressionof new functionalities or service characteristics or significant improvements to existingfunctionalities or characteristics). These two types of R&D fall wholly within theprovince of the social sciences and humanities, particularly the organisational andbehavioural sciences. They generate new knowledge about methods or new servicecharacteristics; in this latter case, the knowledge produced is not the same as that

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