5 what theories influenced human development research

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5. What theories influenced human development research in the mid-twentieth century?
personality – the id, ego, and superego. The id is the source of biological needs and desires. The ego (the conscious), emerges in early infancy to redirect the id’s impulses into acceptable behaviors. The superego (the conscience), develops as parents insist that children conform to the values of society. According to Freud, relations established among the id, ego, and superego between the ages of 2-5 determine the individual’s basic personality. Erikson had the psychosocial theory, which emphasized that in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society. A basic psychosocial conflict, which is resolved along a continuum from positive to negative, determines healthy or maladaptive outcomes at each stage. Unlike Freud, Erikson pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each culture’s life situation. In addition to the psychoanalytic perspective, there is also the behaviorism and social learning theory. In behaviorism, directly observable events- stimuli and responses- are the appropriate focus of study. There is traditional behaviorism, which uses classical conditioning and the operant conditioning theory. (John Watson and B.F. Skinner) There is also the social learning theory, which was devised by Albert Bandura, and it emphasizes modeling, also known as imitation or observational learning, as a powerful source of development. However, there are contributions and limitations of behaviorism and the social learning theory. Behavior modification is procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses. It has been used to relieve difficulties in children and adults, such as poor time management, and unwanted habits. The third theory that influenced human developmental research in the mid- twentieth century was Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, which says that children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world.

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