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Major sexologists of each?Classic sexology: when was it? Why did it emerge then?Is classic sexology important now? Why or why not?Some important sexologists: who were they? what kind of work did they do? when?Krafft-EbingHirschfeldFreudKinseyMasters and JohnsonPerversion: where did this idea originate? (i.e. which discourse “produced” it?)Freud’s understanding ofHow is perversion linked to understandings of the “sex instinct”?Procreative bias: why relevant here?Some basic things to consider for allof the sexual categories/forms of desire: What are the major contemporary forms of desire? How do they compare to earlier forms?When did the categories of desire emerge? How?(e.g. in relation to other historical events, social dynamics and/or ideas?)Did the categories change over time? If so, how and why?6
Heterosexuality-Heterosexuality is a modern invention because we did not used to define what we now call heterosexuality (there was just “normal” and “homosexuality”); it was practiced, but not conceived of us “heterosexuality”o“The concept of ‘heterosexual’ took shape and meaning in relation to the concept of homosexual. Both terms indicated a sexual desire unrelated to reproduction that was the basis of personal identity” (Seidman 47).Heterosexuality formerly “represented a drive, not simply a sexual attract, and it was a drive or behavior, not an identity” (46).-Victorian gender system during Victorian era (19thcentury)oTrue men and True women: all characterized by “purity”—the freedom from sensuality; fine romance with no lascivious kisses (proper procreation, marriage, legal organization)True women: defined by distance from lustTrue men: aspired same freedom from lust, but thought to live closer to carnalityNo pleasure, just procreation (masturbation threatens purity)-Heterosexuality entered popular culture in 1930, when it was referred to (relatively casually) in a New York Timesarticle-The Age of heterosexual hegemony (1945-1965)oThe “cult of domesticity” was happening (women were returning to the home after WWII)Kerbenny/Benkert: The first person to coin the term “homosexual”; spoke out publicly as early as 1869 against growing repression of Persian males found guilty of homosexual actsOnanism: masturbation; led to other perversionsLust(heterosexuality)-Originally, lust was “undifferentiated” (all one type)oGeneric lust that could come out in various forms (pedophilia, masochism, etc.)oNotion that men have more of it; easier for women to keep it at bay (but all had it)-Ultimately became differentiated (“roving”)oUsed to be organized by age, now by gender (the gender revolution)oDistinguished between active (masculine) and passive (feminine)Kiernan: earliest known American to use the word “heterosexual” in a medical journal-Said heterosexuals were defined by a “physical hermaphroditism” in which they were attracted to both sexesoAlso inclined toward pleasure without procreationKrafft-Ebing