so called Alphabet Bomber due to his letters to the media designating a letter

So called alphabet bomber due to his letters to the

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so-called “Alphabet Bomber” (due to his letters to the media designating a letter of the alphabet for each attack), who launched 10 attacks in 2 years. From 2001 through mid-2016, the 69 lone wolves of the post-9/11 era committed 147 attacks, killing 156 people and injuring 184. These attacks involved not only fi rearms and bombs but also small aircraft, biological weapons, knives, and construction equipment. In short, lone wolves have expanded their arsenal of weaponry in the post-9/11 era. While the multiple- attack lone wolves were prominent in the pre-9/11 era, the single- attack lone wolf has risen to prominence since then and include such lone mass- murderers as Nidal Hasan, who killed 13 and injured 30 in the Fort Hood shooting of 2009; Jared Loughner, who killed 6 and wounded 13 in the Tucson massacre of 2011; Wade Page, who killed 6 and wounded 4 in a 2012 shooting rampage at a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin; Dylann Roof, who killed 9 and wounded 1 in the 2015 shooting at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina; and Omar Mateen, who killed 49 and wounded 53 at a gay nightclub in Orlando, Florida in 2016. Trends in lethality are displayed in fi gure 3.1. A relatively stable pattern emerges in the data over time. Between 1940 and 1958, on average there EBSCOhost - printed on 11/1/2020 7:18 PM via COLUMBIA SOUTHERN EDUCATION GROUP. All use subject to
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The Ame rican Lone Wolf Te rrorist [ 37 ] were .02 people killed or wounded per lone wolf attack. For the decade 1960–1969, the number killed or wounded per attack was 2.2. For 1970– 1979, the fi gure was 2.3; for 1980–1989, it was 1.8; and for 1990–2000, the fi gure rose to 4.8—an increase due to the unusually large number of victims (182) who were wounded in attacks during the period. Of these 182 victims, 110 were injured in a single attack: Eric Rudolph’s bombing of the Atlanta Olympic Games in 1996. While the number killed or wounded for 2001–2010 normalized at 2.4, between 2011 and mid-2016 it increased to 8.3. This upsurge was also due to the lethality of a par ticular case: Of the 235 victims for 2011–2016, 102 of them were killed or wounded by Omar Mateen in Orlando. Figure 3.1 indicates that during the fi rst fi ve-and-a-half years of the 2010s, the lethality of American lone wolf terrorism rose to an all-time high. Of the period’s 235 victims, 98  percent of them were killed or wounded by fi rearms. The Social Impact of Lone Wolf Terrorism The preceding numbers are superficial repre sentations of the true threat posed by lone wolf terrorists in the United States. Simon is right when he argues that it is the impact of terrorism on society and government that counts. 6 In this regard, lone wolves tend to see themselves as historical 250 200 150 100 50 0 Number of killed/wounded 1940–1959 1960–1969 1980–1989 1990–2000 2001–2010 2011–2016 1970–1979 Figure 3.1 Trends in lethality of lone wolf terrorism in the United States, 1940–mid-2016 EBSCOhost - printed on 11/1/2020 7:18 PM via COLUMBIA SOUTHERN EDUCATION GROUP. All use subject to
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[ 38 ] The Ame rican Lone Wolf Te rrorist fi gures, and indeed, they have undeniably changed American history through their violence. Several examples from the database make this cru-
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