the entire molecule is polarized and participates in hydrogen bonding with

The entire molecule is polarized and participates in

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the entire molecule is polarized and participates in hydrogen bonding with other polar molecules, meaning they would be water soluble. Any molecule with a hydroxyl group will require more energy to break the strong attraction and will cause the alcohol to boil at higher temperatures than other molecules of a similar size. The boiling point of alcohols can be seen to increase as the result of the influence of the van der Waal's forces on larger carbon chains. With smaller molecules the tendency to be polar wins out but as the carbon chain grows, the molecule becomes less soluble in water. They can function as weak acids or even weaker bases depending on the conditions. Alcohol is neither acidic nor basic when dissolved in water as it neither produces H+ nor OH-. Compound Y may have an alcohol depending on what other functional groups it would react with in regards to pH level. They are water soluble, but the very high boiling point makes it more unlikely that an alcohol would be included in the chemical makeup of compound Y. It would also have to be a very small alcohol so that the large carbon chain does not throw off water solubility. Aldehydes and ketones are classes of organic compounds that are usually characterized by a carbonyl -C=O group. A hydrogen atom would be attached to the carbonyl carbon of aldehydes and ketones will have two hydrocarbon groups attached to the carbonyl carbon. The oxygen atom of the carbonyl functional group is more electronegative than the carbon atom which would be responsible for creating a dipole moment that results in a polar molecule. Because there is no hydrogen atom that is bound to the carbonyl oxygen, aldehydes and ketones cannot form strong attractions to each other but are able to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. This means that they would be soluble in water. The boiling points of aldehydes and ketones are generally higher than ethers, but not as high as alcohols that would be the same size. Ketones and aldehydes have the ability to undergo keto- enol tautomerism. This is the equilibrium between the two possible tautomers or isomers of the compound that only differ because of the position of the protons and electrons. This equilibrium gives the compounds more reactivity. If water were to be added to an aldehyde or ketone it would give a two -OH groups on the same carbon. The reaction is both acid-catalyzed and base-catalyzed. This means there is not a very high possibility that these functional groups would be in compound Y because their boiling points are high and the combination of them with most other functional groups would change whether they would be acidic or basic, but paired with another group that would neutralize them and have a very low boiling point it could work. Carboxylic acids are a class of organic compounds that are characterized by a carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. It is composed of a hydroxyl group attached to a carbonyl group. Carboxylic acids are proton donors and tend to form weak acids when compared to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. Carboxylic acids
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  • Winter '17
  • James Mintz
  • Energy, Heat, Functional group

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