Cytogenetic and genome research 2005110229 241

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Cytogenetic and Genome Research 2005;110:229-241
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Targeting of natural genetic engineering Shapiro, JA. 2005. A 21 st Century View Of Evolution: Genome System Architecture, Repetitive DNA, And Natural Genetic Engineering. Gene 345 : 91-100 Known molecular mechanisms: Sequence recognition by proteins (yeast mating-type switching, ribosomal LINE elements, homing introns, VDJ joining); Protein-protein interaction wth transcription factors or chromatin proteins (Ty retrotransposon targeting); Sequence recognition by RNA (reverse splicing of group II retrohoming introns); Transcriptional activation of target DNA (somatic hypermutation; class-switch recombination). Unknown mechanisms: Telomere targeting of certain LINE elements in insects; HIV & MLV targeting upstream of transcribed regions; P factor homing directed by transcription, chromatin signals.
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Yeast Ty5 targeting S. Sandmeyer. Integration by design. PNAS, May 13, 2003; 100(10): 5586 - 5588.
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Advantages of non-random searches of genome space at evolutionary crises Genome changes occur under stress or other conditions, when they are most likely to prove beneficial; Multiple related changes can occur when a particular natural genetic engineering system is activated; Rearrangement of proven genomic components increases the chance that novel combinations will be functional; Targeting can increase the probability of functional integration and reduce the risk of system damage; Rearrangements followed by localized changes provide opportunities for fine tuning once novel function has been achieved.
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What general principles operate in genome function and genome reorganization? All genome functions are interactive (no Cartesian dualism, genome always in communication with rest of cell); Every genome component operates as part of a complex information-processing system (no “one gene-one trait” correlation); Genome systems are organized and integrated into cell networks by repetitive DNA; Genome change is a regulated biological function; Natural genetic engineering processes are subject to biological feedback at multiple levels.
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  • Fall '19
  • DNA, Genome Research, Genome Sequencing Consortium, James A. Shapiro, natural genetic engineering

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