includes all countries big and small which have decided to break away from

Includes all countries big and small which have

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includes all countries big and small which have decided to break away from international capitalism. The imperialist camp contains not only the capitalist giants like the U.S.A., France, West Germany, and Japan but also the weak nations in which those industrial nations have investments. Therefore, the imperialist camp can be subdivided into exploiting and exploited countries. For the most part, the nations of Africa fall into the group of exploited countries inside the capitalist/imperialist system. Roughly one-third of the world’s peoples are already living under some form of socialism. The other two-thirds constitute the capitalist/imperialist camp, with the majority being in the exploited section. It is interesting to notice that in spite of their efforts to confuse the situation, the bourgeois writers often touch on the truth. For example, the United Nations (which is dominated by Western capitalist powers) would never stress the exploitation by capitalist nations, but their economic reviews refer on the one hand to “the centrally planned economies,” which means the socialist countries, and on the other hand they speak of “the market economies,” which means in effect the imperialist sector of the world. The latter is subdivided into “the developed market economies” and “the developing market economies,” disguising the fact that the market means capitalist market. This study is concerned with analyzing the rela- tions between those countries which are together within the capitalist market system. The things which bring Africa into the capitalist market system are HOW EUROPE UNDERDEVELOPED AFRICA 25 trade, colonial domination, and capitalist investment. Trade has existed for several centuries; colonial rule began in the late nineteenth century and has almost disappeared; and the investment in the African economy ¡ has been increasing steadily in the present century. Throughout the period i that Africa has participated in the capitalist economy, two factors have i brought about underdevelopment. In the first place, the wealth created by African labor and from African resources was grabbed by the capitalist countries of Europe; and in the second place, restrictions were placed upon ¡ African capacity to make the maximum use of its economic potential— which is what development is all about. Those two processes represent the answer to the two questions raised above as to why Africa has realized so little of its potential and why so much of its present wealth goes outside '( of the continent African economies are integrated into the very structure of the developed capitalist economies; and they are integrated in a manner that is unfavor- able to Africa and insures that Africa is dependent on the big capitalist countries. Indeed, structural dependence is one of the characteristics of underdevelopment Most progressive writers divide the capitalist/imperialist system into two parts. The first is the dominant or metropolitan section,
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