Implementation of such strategies encompasses

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Implementation of such strategies encompasses concepts such as designing of ecoproducts, lean and clean production approaches, and waste reduction. Fig. 1 SBM archetypes and business cases [adapted from Bocken et al. ( 2014 )] 112 R. Pal
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Considering the increasing volatility in the energy prices, ecodesign aims at improving the energy ef fi ciency and resource effectiveness (closing the material loop) by implementing various strategies, viz. dematerialization or multi-functionality. From the marketing perspective, the current Ecodesign Directive set by European Union (EU) can be extended to cover design, in terms of both scope and markets covered (from energy-related products to all products and services). These products are focused toward limited usage of energy, reduced CO 2 emissions, minimized negative environmental impact through energy focus (De Groene Zaak and Ethica 2015 ), considering the fact that the product design and development plays a signi fi cant role in determining the environmental impact of textiles (accounting for nearly 80 % of the total) during various lifecycle stages (Norden 2015 ). Such ecodesign principles include not only the choice of the material but also the func- tionality of the product throughout the life cycle (effecting the environment in terms of water and energy consumption). For instance, Continental Clothing a UK-based brand has developed an EarthPositive Apparel that is 100 % organic with 90 % reduced CO 2 . This reduced impact (an EarthPositive T-shirt saves around 7 kg of CO 2 ) is achieved through combination of low-impact organic farming, ef fi ciency in manufacturing and transportation, and the use of renewable energy instead of the fossil fuel-based grid electricity. In practice, many forerunner companies have started working beyond ecodesign by embracing circular design principles, aimed to go beyond reducing the negative environmental impacts and succeed in creating a positive regenerative impact (De Groene Zaak and Ethica 2015 ). Gwilt ( 2014 ) illustrates using examples various concepts, such as mono-materiality, modular design, that have the potential to design for circularity. Use of mono-materials in products has been considered strategic due to the higher scope of recycling, which is lost in case of blends and also due to certain fi nishing steps adding contamination into the products. Gwilt ( 2014 ) high- lights the need to experiment with different embellishment techniques, such as laser-cutting or needle-punching, which can provide detail without contaminating the fi ber. This further creates degrees of modularity in the product which is bene fi cial for easy separation and recycling. Additive manufacturing in this context is a dis- ruptive technology that can be explored in apparel manufacturing; recently, 3D laser printing technology has been used by fashion designer Iris van Harpen and architect Julia Koemer, in collaboration with a Belgium company (Materialise) to fuse small particles of plastic and print continuous surfaces without seams into laces. N12 is a ready-to-wear bikini collection made from 3D printed Nylon 12. Such innovations
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