b. coagulation __A__ 10. (190) Which component of the plasma protein system tags pathogenic microorganisms for destruction by neutrophils and macrophages? a. Complement cascade 53 - ___C_ 11. ( 189) Which of the following is a vascular effect of histamine released from mast cells? c. Vasodilation (** Causes vasodilatation and increased capillary permeability.) __A__ 12. ( 188) What is an outcome of the complement cascade? a. Activates the clotting cascade
__C__ 13. (190) In the clotting cascade, the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways converge at: c. factor X. (** Then it follows a normal pathway, leading to activation of Hageman factor (or known as factor XII) which leads to activation of the clotting cascade, controlled clotting, activating the kinin system and C1 in the complement system). __C__ 14. (189) What effect does chemotactic factor have on the inflammatory process? c. It directs leukocytes to the inflamed area (*A chemotatic factor is a biochemical substance that attracts leukocytes) __A__ 15. (196) When histamine binds the histamine-2 (H2) receptor, inflammation is: a. inhibited. (** When histamine binds with H1 receptors it activates the inflammatory response.) __A__ 16. (191) Which chemical mediators induce pain during an inflammatory response? a. Prostaglandins and bradykinin ___D_ 17. (199) What are the inflammatory effects of nitric oxide (NO)? d. It decreases mast cell function and decreases platelet aggregation. 54 - __C__ 18. (201) When looking at white blood cell differentials, nurses know that individuals have early, acute inflammatory reactions when they notice elevations of which leukocyte? c. Neutrophils (**Neutrophils = early response-6-12 hrs, Monocytes = later response- 24hrs and replace the nuetrophils, Eosinophils= parasites, Basophils = associated with allergies and asthma, primary role is unknown.) __B__ 19. (201) The predominant phagocytic cells in the later stages of an inflammatory response are: b. monocytes __D__ 20. (204) Which cytokines are produced and released from virally infected host cells? d. IFN-alpha and IFN-beta (INF is Interferon that functions against viral infections by producing antiviral proteins that protect healthy cells.) ___C_ 21. ( 205) TNF-alpha is secreted from: (TNF is tumor necrosis factor-alpha) c. macrophages. __B__ 22. (205) Which manifestation of inflammation is systemic? b. Fever and leukocytosis 55 - __A__ 23. (204) One systemic manifestation of the acute inflammatory response is fever that is produced by _____ on the hypothalamus. a. endogenous pyrogens acting 56 - __A__ 24. (208) What occurs during the process of repair after tissue damage? a. Destroyed tissue is replaced by nonfunctioning scar tissue. (**Tissue has a period of healing that involves repair and resolution. B =resolution) ___C_ 25. (210) The role of fibroblasts during the reconstructive phase of wound healing is to: c. synthesize and secrete collagen and the connective tissue proteins
57 - __A__ 26. (212) Which solution is best to use when cleaning a wound that is healing by epithelialization?
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- Fall '13
- Membranes, cells, Hyperkalemia, Adenosine