713).later research simply validated this statement(Ellner andBarnes 1983).In an effort to break out of these circumstances,the Mary-land State Department of Education (McTighe 1985) issuedthe following useful guide of question types based on cog-nitive levels (Bloom et al. 1956):Knowledge: Identification and recall of informationWho, what, when, where, howDescribeComprehension: Organization and selection of facts andideasRetellApplication: Use of facts, rules, and principlesHow isan example ofHow isrelated toWhy issignificant?Ana4sis: Separation of a whole into component partsWhat are the parts or features ofClassifyaccording toOutline/diagramHow doescompare/contrast with7What evidence can you list forSynthesis: Combination of ideas to form a new wholeWhat would you predict/infer fromWhat ideas can you add toAaive Learning25,4 ti
How would you create/design a newWhat might happen if you combinedWhat solutions would you suggest forEvaluation: Development of opinions,judgments, ordecisionsDo you agreeWhat do you think about7What is the most important7Place the following in order of priorityHow would you decide aboutWhat criteria would you use to assessA caveat about questioning is necessary.Students are notguaranteed to respond at the same cognitivelevel as that ofthe question posed. For instance,when asked to compare andcontrast the strengths andweaknesses of the North and theSouth before the Civil War, studentscould conceivably(indeed likely) respond with materialmemorized from a sim-ilar discussion presented in theassigned reading. Thus, theywould be responding at the knowledgelevel to a questiondesigned to stimulate analytic reasoningAn exploration of the verbal structureof questions to seewhich question forms are most effectiveused videotapes ofclassroom interaction to evaluatethe number of statementsstudents make, the number of participatingstudents, the num-ber of student-follows-student sequences,and the total timestudents talked (Andrews 1980). Based onthese variables,the researcher concluded that thethree most productive typesof questions were structured variationsof a divergent ques-tion. In terms of effectiveness,with the most effective first,they are the playground question,the brainstorm question,and the focal question.1. The playground question.Such a question is structuredby the instructor's designating acarefully chosen aspectof the material (the "playground")for intensive study.("Let's see whether we can make anygeneralizationsabout the play as a whole fromthe nature of the open-ing lines.")2. The brainstorm question.The structure of this type ofquestion is thematic. Participants areencouraged to gen-erate as many ideas on asingle topic as possible withina short spaceof time, but the theme defines the range2641
of what is appropriate. ("Whatkinds of things is Hamletquestionii1g--not just in his soliloquybut throughout thewhole play?")3. Thefocal question.
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- Educational Psychology