Cushioning seating shoe soles hoses car bumpers

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Cushioning, seating, shoe soles, hoses, car bumpers, insulation Polyvinylchloride PVC Pipes, gutters, window frames, packaging Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) PTFE Non-stick coatings, bearings, skis, electrical insulation, tape Thermoset Epoxies Adhesives, fibre composites, electronic encapsulation Phenolics Electrical plugs, sockets, cookware, handles, adhesives Polyester Furniture, boats, sports goods Polymer Foams Flexible Polymer Foam Packaging, buoyancy, cushioning, sponges, sleeping mats Rigid Polymer Foam Thermal insulation, sandwich panels, packaging, buoyancy
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28 V.3 COMPOSITES, CERAMICS, GLASSES AND NATURAL MATERIALS Composites Applications Metal Aluminium/Silicon Carbide Automotive parts, sports goods Polymer CFRP Lightweight structural parts (aerospace, bike frames, sports goods, boat hulls and oars, springs) GFRP Boat hulls, automotive parts, chemical plant Ceramics Glasses Borosilicate Glass Ovenware, laboratory ware, headlights Glass Ceramic Cookware, lasers, telescope mirrors Silica Glass High performance windows, crucibles, high temperature applications Soda-Lime Glass Windows, bottles, tubing, light bulbs, pottery glazes Porous Brick Buildings Concrete General civil engineering construction Stone Buildings, architecture, sculpture Technical Alumina Cutting tools, spark plugs, microcircuit substrates, valves Aluminium Nitride Microcircuit substrates and heatsinks Boron Carbide Lightweight armour, nozzles, dies, precision tool parts Silicon Microcircuits, semiconductors, precision instruments, IR windows, MEMS Silicon Carbide High temperature equipment, abrasive polishing grits, bearings, armour Silicon Nitride Bearings, cutting tools, dies, engine parts Tungsten Carbide Cutting tools, drills, abrasives Natural Bamboo Building, scaffolding, paper, ropes, baskets, furniture Cork Corks and bungs, seals, floats, packaging, flooring Leather Shoes, clothing, bags, drive-belts Wood Construction, flooring, doors, furniture, packaging, sports goods
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29 VI. EQUILIBRIUM (PHASE) DIAGRAMS Figure 6.1 Copper – Nickel equilibrium diagram Figure 6.2 Lead – Tin equilibrium diagram
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30 Figure 6.3 Iron – Carbon equilibrium diagram Figure 6.4 Aluminium – Copper equilibrium diagram
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31 Figure 6.5 Aluminium – Silicon equilibrium diagram Figure 6.6 Copper – Zinc equilibrium diagram
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32 Figure 6.7 Copper – Tin equilibrium diagram Figure 6.8 Titanium – Aluminium equilibrium diagram
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33 Figure 6.9 Silica – Alumina equilibrium diagram
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34 Figure 7.1 Isothermal transformation diagram for 1% nickel steel, BS503M40 (En12) Figure 7.2 Jominy end quench curves for 1% nickel steel, BS503M40 (En12) VII. HEAT TREATMENT OF STEELS
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35 Figure 7.3 Isothermal transformation diagram for 1.5% Ni – Cr – Mo steel, BS817M40 (En24) Figure 7.4 Jominy end quench curves for 1.5% Ni – Cr – Mo steel, BS817M40 (En24)
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36 VIII. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS ATOMIC PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ELEMENTS Lattice constants 3 (at 20 o C) Element Symbol Atomic Number Relative Atomic Weight 1 Melting Point ( o C) Crystal structure 2 (at 20 o C) a, (b) (Å) c (Å) Aluminium Al 13 26.982 660 f.c.c. 4.0496 Beryllium Be 4 9.012 1280 h.c.p. 2.2856 3.5843 Boron B 5 10.811 2300 t. 8.73 5.03
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