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Although it was prepared to treat such matters as the extension of the vote, the relation of capitalist to laborer and how far a government can find work or pay for the poor, it was against universal suffrage (vote), monster meetings and violence. Its standpoint was explicitly Christian and most of its contributors believed in a class-structured society. It seemed moreover too academic and few workers read it, but it was noticed enough to be attacked by the Chartist Commonwealthfor being too clerical and by the Oxford Heraldfor being too democratic! Kingsley was attacked for saying the Bible was the poor man’s book. It only lasted from early May to the end of July 1848. In addition Tavern meetings were arranged between Ludlow, Maurice, Kingsley and others sympathetic to their cause (including the gentleman-boxer Tom Hughes) with anti-Christian Chartists. Maurice presided but allowed the workmen to talk freely and afterwards summarized what they had said. He wanted to learn from them. They had never met any cleric like him and were impressed. He found they were more interested in social than political reform. Ludlow returned from a holiday in France with a program for Christian co-operatives or associations based on the Associations Ouvrières in Paris, where the workers would own the business and receive the profits. A similar idea had in fact already been adopted in the north of England. In December 1849 Maurice, Ludlow and others decided to establish a working tailors’ association under the management of Chartist tailor Walter Hooper. Before long, twelve workshops were scattered over London - for tailors, builders, shoemakers, piano makers, printers, bakers and smiths. The movement was greatly assisted by grants from wealthy philanthropist Vansittart Neale. Lord Shaftesbury helped found an association of needlewomen. It was in 1850 that Maurice first accepted publicly the name ‘Christian Socialist’.In November 1850 the new penny journal, Christian Socialist,appeared, edited by Ludlow. This embodied the first coherent attempt to state a Christian view of a socialist society. The Church, he said, must assert the rule of God over every act of common life, embodying its Gospel in forms of social organization. It must attack sweated labor and commercial fraud. No godless system of socialism is adequate because socialism rests on moral grounds of righteousness and self-sacrifice and common brotherhood which are in fact inseparable from religious faith. Ludlow wanted a society where every citizen was well educated and employed. To achieve this the economy of the State must be controlled. He attributed the slums to political
84 economists who thought economic life should be left to follow its own laws unfettered. He declared that Christianity was not compatible with an economy and trade based wholly on profit. He wanted co-operatives to spread throughout the country until wages and prices could be fixed for the good of all. But he did not