10.Place two drops of Anti-B serum in the well labeled B. 11.Using a separate mixing stick for each well, mix the simulated blood and antiserum for approximately ten seconds. 12.Carefully examine each well to see if the blood has clumped. If agglutination has occurred, place a “+” in the appropriate box in the table. Remember that you will only see agglutination if a specific antibody meets up with its specific antigen. Record your observations and use the information to determine blood type. 13.Using a fresh tray for each sample, repeat steps 7-11 to determine the blood type of the other family members. 14.Using information from the lab, determine who is able to donate blood to Jane. Note that Sue just called in to let everyone know that she is blood type O. Refer back to your initial table of blood types to help you decide. 15.Answer conclusion questions 2 and 3. 16.Note that blood typing results also reveal that everyone in the family is Rh positive (Rh+). Research what this means in terms of antigens on the red blood cells. Describe your findings in your laboratory journal. Part II: Genetics of Blood Type Remember that our chromosomes carry two alleles , or forms of a gene that provide the code for each of our traits. We receive one allele from Mom and one allele from Dad. Most traits are only coded for by two alleles, one that is dominant and one that is recessive. Blood type, however, is controlled by three different alleles – the A allele (usually designated I A ), the B allele (usually designated as I B ) and the O allele (usually designated as i ). Remember that dominant alleles are usually represented with a capital letter and recessive alleles with a lower case letter. The A and the B allele are both dominant so we call them codominant . Neither allele wins out over the other and is expressed alone. The O allele is recessive and gets masked by either of the two dominant alleles. © 2014 Project Lead The Way, Inc. Human Body Systems Activity 5.3.2 Transfusion Confusion– Page 3
17.Note that phenotypes , traits we see, are controlled for by genotypes , the combination of alleles we inherit from our parents. You know that there are four different phenotypes for blood type (Type A, Type B, Type AB and Type O). Since each person has two alleles for each trait (one from Mom and one from Dad), what are the possible genotypes for each blood type? One of the genotypes for Blood Type A has been filled in for you. Note that this genotype is considered homozygous . There are two of the same alleles. Note: There may be more than one possible genotype for a given blood type.
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- Fall '16