Session 02: Integrated Pest Management Pesticide use is and will continue to be significant in food and fiberproduction, forestry, turf and landscape maintenance, and public health.Pest management has shifted from relying heavily on pesticides to usingan integrated approach based on pest assessment, decision making, andevaluation.Why Practice IPM?Why have pest managers shifted to IPM when chemical pesticides so oftensucceed at controlling pests? There are many reasons to broaden pestmanagement beyond the use of chemicals.IPM helps to keep a balanced ecosystem.Every ecosystem, made up ofliving things and their non-living environment, has a balance; the actions ofone kind of organism in the ecosystem usually affect other species.Introducing chemicals into the ecosystem can change this balance,destroying certain species and allowing other species (sometimes peststhemselves) to dominate. Pesticides can kill beneficial insects that consumepests, leaving few natural mechanisms of pest control.Pesticides can be ineffective.Chemical pesticides are not alwayseffective. Pests can become resistant to pesticides. In fact, some 600 cases ofpests developing pesticide resistance have been documented to date,including many common weeds, insects, and disease-causing fungi.Furthermore, pests may survive in situations where the chemical does notreach pests, is washed off, is applied at an improper rate, or is applied at animproper life stage of the pest.IPM can save money.IPM can avoid crop loss caused by pests andprevent unnecessary pesticide expense. Applicators can save on pesticidecosts because the need for control, rather than routine application triggeredby the calendar, is the basis for applying pesticides.IPM promotes a healthy environment. We have much to learn aboutthe persistence of chemicals in the environment and their effect on livingcreatures. Cases of contaminated groundwater appear each year, anddisposal of containers and unused pesticides still pose challenges forapplicators. Make sure that environmental impacts are considered in any15
Unit 4pest management decisions. Using IPM strategies helps keep adverseeffects to a minimumIPM maintains a good public image.IPM is now demanded by manysectors of our society. IPM has been implemented to grow our food, tomanage turf and ornamentals, to protect home and business structures, tomanage school grounds, and to protect humans, pets, and livestock health.Components of an Integrated Pest Management ProgramPlanning is at the heart of an IPM program. Every crop has pests that needto be considered. If you wait until problems arise during a growing season,you’ll end up relying on pesticides more and more.A good Integrated Pest Management program has three components:1)identifying and monitoring pest problems;2)selecting the best pest management tactics;3)record keeping and evaluating the program.