Involving the family members and asking the patient

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that skill. Involving the family members and asking the patient questions may help them retain the information and reinforce their learning, but they do not confirm the patient’s ability to perform the procedure. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM P wave indicates atrial depolarization QRS complex is ventricular depolarization T wave is ventricular repolarization; PR interval is time needed for depolarization and impulse to travel through conduction nodes and Purkinje fiber QT interval is the time it takes for ventricular depolarization and repolarization to occur. The kidneys regulate the amount of water in the body in relation to the amount reabsorbed from the renal tubules as it passes through the kidneys, and the amount allowed to remain and be excreted as urine. A decrease in fluid volume also decreases the amount of blood that passes through the kidneys, resulting in the production of less urine. The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, or RAAS, regulates the release of chemicals that cause constriction of the arterioles and veins, and any increase in blood pressure. The RAAS activates when the kidneys perceive a decrease in blood flow through the kidneys. The enzyme, renin, is released by the kidneys, which begins a complex, cascade of chemical reactions that lead to an angiotensin II release into the circulation.
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Angiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor that stimulates the kidneys to decrease salt and water excretion. It
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