History of the dsm dsm iv introduced in 1994

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History of the DSM DSM-IV introduced in 1994 Eliminated previous distinction between psychological vs. organic mental disorders Reflected appreciation that all disorders are influenced by both psychological and biological factors
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The DSM-5 Basic characteristics Removed axial system Clear inclusion and exclusion criteria for disorders Disorders are categorized under broad headings Empirically-grounded, prototypic approach to classification
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Unresolved Issues in DSM-5 The problem of comorbidity Defined as two or more disorders for the same person High comorbidity is extremely common Labeling issues and stigmatization Some labels have negative connotations and may make patients less likely to seek treatment
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Summary of Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis Clinical assessment and diagnosis Aims to fully understand the client Aids in understanding and ameliorating human suffering Based on reliable, valid, and standardized information
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Conducting Research in Psychopathology Questions driving a science of psychopathology What problems cause distress or impair functioning? Why do people behave in unusual ways? How can we help people behave in more adaptive ways?
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Basic Components of Research Starts with a hypothesis Precise testable prediction Choose a research design Case study Correlational Experimental
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Studying Individual Cases Case study method Extensive observation and detailed description of a client Source of hypotheses development Limitations Biases? Validity Internal External
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Research by Correlation Assess the degree to which variables are are related to each other Example: Higher levels of education are linked to higher levels of income The nature of correlation Statistical relation between variables No independent variable is manipulated Range from –1.0 to 0 to +1.0 Positive versus negative correlation
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Research by Correlation Necessary in situations where you can’t manipulate variables Limitations Does not imply causation Problem of directionality Epidemiological research – an example of the correlational method Incidence & prevalence of disorders Examples – AIDS, trauma following disaster
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Research by Experiment Nature of experimental research Manipulation of independent variables Attempt to establish causal relations Experimental versus control group Random assignment Blind versus double blind studies Repeated measurement Allows researcher to identify trends in behavior
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Statistical versus Clinical Significance Statistical vs. clinical significance Statistical significance – are results due to chance?
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