Discuss the various types of itemized rating scales. Likert scale : the respondents are required to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements related to the stimulus objects. The Likert scale is often used in marketing. It is easy to construct and administer, it is easy for respondents to complete, and it is suitable for mail, telephone, and personal surveys.
Semantic differential scale : is a seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. Respondents are required to rate objects on a number of itemized, seven-point rating scales bounded at each end by one of two bipolar adjectives. This scale is popular in marketing and has been used in image studies, promotion strategy, and new product development studies. Staple scale : is a unipolar rating scale with ten categories numbered from -5 to +5, without a neutral point. Respondents are asked to indicate how accurately or inaccurately each term describes the object by selecting an appropriate numerical response category. Though easier to construct than the Semantic Differential, while giving the same results, the Staple scale has not been widely applied in marketing. Describe a population, a census, and a sample. A population is the aggregate of all the elements that share some common set of characteristics, and that comprise the universe for the purpose of the marketing research problem. The population parameters are typically numbers, such as the proportion of consumers who are loyal to a particular brand of toothpaste. Information about population parameters may be obtained by taking a census or a sample. A census involves a complete enumeration of the elements of a population. The population parameters can be calculated directly in a straightforward way after the census is enumerated. A sample , on the other hand, is a subgroup of the population selected for participation in the study. Sample characteristics, called statistics, are then used to make inferences about the population parameters. Explain the relationship between the sample design process and the research project. Recall that sampling is the fifth step in the process of formulating a research design. The researcher has already specified the information, which is needed to address the marketing research problem, and the primary sources from which this information would be obtained have also been determined. Furthermore, the scaling and measurement procedures have been specified and the questionnaire designed. At this point sampling becomes the critical question because the researcher must now administer the questionnaire to the relevant group of respondents. Give examples of nonprobability sampling techniques. Convenience Sampling - Exploratory research. Judgmental Sampling - Test markets selected to determine the potential of a new product .
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- researcher, secondary data, marketing research problem