Beneficial because of the fact that it raises

This preview shows page 9 - 12 out of 77 pages.

beneficial because of the fact that it raises learners' consciousness concerning the differences and similarities of L1 and L2. In this respect, grammar instruction can be used as a "linguistic map," with reference points of "rules of thumbs" to assist students as they explore the "topography" of the new language. However, we need to remember that grammatical structures by themselves are rather useless. Like road signs, grammatical structures take on meaning only if they are situated in a context and in connected discourse. Furthermore, Krashen (1982) reminds us that grammatical structures will become internalized only if the learners are placed in a situation in which they need to use the structures for communicative purposes. Consequently, an important role of the teacher is to create
learning situations in which the students feel a need to master the grammar in order to comprehend and communicate in the target language. A detailed pedagogy scheme on how to teach and learn grammar is provided in a section that follows the presentation of the rules.
1 1. The Arabic Alphabet. The Arabic sources, as long as they do not attribute the invention of the Arabic script to Adam or Ishmael, tell us that the script had been introduced either from South Arabia region or from Mesopotamia (Iraq). Ibn Al-Nadim, for example, said that the people of Al-Hira, the capital of the Lakhmid dynasty in the Euphrates valley, used a form of Syriac cursive script which had developed into the Arabic alphabet. Versteegh claims that the theory of Syriac origin has now been abandoned by most scholars. It seems much more likely to him that the Arabic alphabet is derived from a type of cursive Nabataean in Petra, Jordan. In the Aramaic script, from which Nabataean writing ultimately derived, there are no ligatures between letters. But in the cursive forms of the Nabataean script most of the features that characterize the Arabic script already appear. Versteegh adds that the elaboration of an Arabic script for texts in Arabic took place as early as the second century CE. This would mean that the development of the Arabic script as it is used in pre-Islamic inscriptions occurred largely independently from the later developments in Nabataean epigraphic script. The most important internal development in Arabic script is the systematic elaboration of connections between letters within the word, and the system of different forms of the letters according to their position within the word. According to Siibawayh, the Arabic Alphabet is made of 29 letters, including 3 long vowels. He put them in the following order starting with the laryngeal and ending with labial, representing the place of articulation along the vocal tract. E ã E åE 8 [ E ç E é E è E ـ7 E% E E ë E a E b E d E F E L E G E ; E í E ì & E i E Y E { E î E : E ï E ñ E Ö Though Siibawayh listed 29 letters he concluded that in reality there were 35 sounds which are represented by those 29 letters. He explained that the recitation of the Quran and reading of poetry had necessitated the existance of those 6 additional sounds.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture