Phenotypically plastic bc phenotype dramatically shifts based on environmental

Phenotypically plastic bc phenotype dramatically

This preview shows page 38 - 40 out of 102 pages.

Phenotypically plastic bc phenotype dramatically shifts based on environmental cues All learning type of phenotypic plasticity, but not all phenotypic plasticity result of learning flushing behaviour in foraging birds Moving tails/wings to flush insects out from cover, which they then eat Ex. Painted redstart (Myioborus pictus) Indvs under branches increase wing/feather motions to flush insects from overhanging branches Jablonski and colleagues Increase in wing flapping also occurs in lab when birds are placed under branches, even when they aren’t rewarded for behaviour Shows phenotypic plasticity bc different responses when under branch vs. not under, but not learning How Animals Learn 3 experiences leading to learning Single stimulus Stimulus-stimulus Response-reinforcer Learning from Single Stimulus Experience Ex. studying rats Place arbitrary cue in cage many types throughout day Cue is blue stick and had no relevance to rat before experiment Rats take notes of disturbance and turn heads towards stick Rat can either pay more attention to stick over time (sensitization) or less attention over time (habituation) Sensitization Become more sensitive to stimulus over time Habituation Less sensitive to stimulus over time
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Sensitization and habituation are simple-stimulus learning Ex. problem with habituation Prey fish species and predatory fish species placed in different tanks where they can see each other and not interact Prey may habituate to predator and think predator cannot move close enough to present real danger Ethologists must ensure habituation has not occurred Ex. more problems with habituations Conservation biologists who hold animals in captivity and release them into wild Animals may have habituated to stimuli that proved to be harmless in captivity but actually harmful in wild Ex. working with horses Animal trainers may habituate horses to stimuli to reduce their fear response to things that elicit innate fear responses habituation/sensitization has consequences for learning Habituation interferes w/ attempts to associate stimulus to another cue Sensitization facilitates association of stimulus to another cue Ex. if rat habituates to blue stick, it may be hard for them to associate stick with arrival of food. If rat sensitizes to blue stick, can associate the blue stick w/ other cues Pavlovian (Classical Conditioning) Ex. rat example Blue stick paired with odour of cat, which rats fear, even when exposed to for the first time If rats associate blue stick with odour before odour is sprayed into cage and hides before odour is sprayed, experiment shows classical conditioning Stimulus 1 associated with stimulus 2 Blue stick is conditioned stimulus (CS) and cat odour is unconditioned stimulus (US) CS comes to be feared bc it predicts US → Conditioned Response (CR) Involve 2 stimuli
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