Nehru stood firm with this faith in the five point

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was squarely denied.Nehru stood firm with this faith in the five-point principle.The international community stood by him, as China withdrew under growing international pressure, fearing isolation and global antagonism. Nehru played his last masterstroke in international policy, as he turned the military defeat in a moral victory for India. The Chinese invasion had far reaching effects on India's foreign policy. It forced Nehru to change his stance on international affairs. He realized that unmitigated goodwill was not necessary the way the business of foreign affairs was conducted.Nehru's dreams were more or less shattered. It was also a great eye-
School of Distance Education Modern Indian History (Course II) Page 85 opener.It made India to see that it is important to strengthen one's military strength and not overtly depend on peaceful negotiations in matters of international affairs.The Chinese invasion was a shock to Nehru, almost shaking his idealistic foundation to the very base. Domestic problems also kept escalating, putting a great degree of mental and physical stress on Nehru. NAM AND NEHRU It was Nehru who gave this voice a shape to the idea of non-alignment and an organizational cohesion through the non-aligned movement.The immediate context for emergence of this movement was the division of the world into two hostile blocs after World War II, one led by the US and the western powers and the other by the Soviet Union. Nehru's understanding was that newly independent, poor countries of Asia and Africa had nothing to gain and everything to lose by falling for the temptation of joining the military blocs of the big powers.Their interests lay in expanding the ‘area of peace’, not of war, or hostility. India, therefore, neither joined nor approved of the Baghdad Pact, the Manila Treaty, SEATO, and CENTO, which joined the countries of West and East Asia to the western power bloc. However, India went far beyond just neutrality or staying out of military. A basic objective of Indian foreign policy that of extending support to colonial and ex-colonial countries in their struggle against colonialism was well served by the policy of non-alignment. Nehru constantly emphasized that peaceful co-existence of countries with different ideologies, differing systems, was a necessity, and believed that nobody had a monopoly on the truth and pluralism was a fact. To this end, he outlined the five principles of peaceful coexistence, or Panch Sheel , for conducting relations among countries. These were mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence. In March 1947, at his inspiration, an Asian Relations Conference attended by more than twenty countries was held in Delhi. The tone of the conference was Asian independence and assertion on the world stage. While this conference concerned itself with general issues, the next one was called in response to a very specific problem: the Dutch attempt to re-colonize Indonesia in December 1948. Nehru

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