The esophagus is a muscular tube that moves food into the stomach Begins inferior to the laryngopharynx and is positioned posterior to the trachea The esophagus travels down the thoracic cavity, piercing the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus. 22) What does the lower esophageal sphincter do? What can occur if it’s not working It’s supposed to keep HCl inside your stomach, but it kind of sucks at its job. When it’s really bad it results in HCl irritating your esophagus and if that happens enough=> cancer 23) Label 24) What are the four main regions of the stomach? Cardia, Body, Fundus and Pylorus 25) What are gastric glands and gastric pits? Gastric glands: columns of secretory cells extending down the lamina propria Gastric pits: Several gastric glands that open into a narrow channel
26) What are the three specialized cells you’ll find in gastric pits? What are their specific functions? Mucous neck cells: produce mucus Parietal cells: produce intrinsic factor and HCl Chief cells: secrete the protease pepsinogen and gastric lipase 27) What is the idea behind having many stem cells in the stomach? To continuously replace cell types => super important in the stomach 28) What is the importance of HCl in the stomach? So, the natural formation of proteins is tangled and structured HCl denatures proteins and makes them all straightened out 29) Where does chyme pass through after the stomach? The stomach allows small amounts of chyme through the pyloric sphincter and enters the duodenum of the small intestine =intestinal phase of digestion 30) Describe the function of the pancreas and its secretions The pancreas secretes enzymes that aid in digestion: Amylase=> sugar Peptidase=> protein Trypsin=> protein* & cell adhesion molecules Lipase=> fat Enzymes from the pancreas are pumped into the duodenum and mix with chyme No pancreas= no digestion 31) What is 99% of the pancreas composed of? What is the other 1% 99%=> pancreatic acini=> participate in exocrine secretion 1%=> pancreatic islets=> form the endocrine portion of the gland. Secrete hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide 32) Describe the liver. What is a functional unit of liver called? The liver is the largest gland and second largest organ. It is split into functional units called liver lobules. It has 2 main lobes, divided by the falciform ligament 33) How do lobules receive bloody supply? Venous blood (via hepatic portal vein=> O 2 poor, nutrient rich) and arterial blood (via hepatic artery=> O 2 rich) feed the lobule from its triad on the outer margin Blood mixture percolates through sinusoid (hepatocytes=> specialized capillaries) towards the central vein 34) Where are Kupffer cells? Where are they located? Fixed macrophages located in the sinusoids. Destroy red cells, white cells and bacteria in blood draining from GI tract 35) What is the important function that hepatocytes play in the role of digestion? (they secrete..?) Hepatocytes secrete bile, which helps to emulsify fats for the watery environment of the small intestine digestive juices. They secrete ~1L of bile per day
36) Where does bile drain into?
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- Winter '16
- Josef Buttigieg