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Concentration gradient providing the power for

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concentration gradient, providing the power for glucose to move up its concentrationgradient.BAntiport secondary active transportiMoving two substances in opposite directionsiiTransport proteins involved are calledantiporters(aka countertransporters)iiiEx. Na+moves down its concentration into the cell through an antiporter, whichcreates the energy needed to move H+up its concentration and out of the cell.2Explain the difference between exocytosis and endocytosis.
iiRequires energy to create the bonds formed when vesicles membrane fuses to itself or to thecell membraneiiiTwo processesAExocytosisiSecreting large substances or large amounts of substances from the cellii4 stepsaMolecules are put in vesiclebVesicle travels towards cell membranecVesicle merges with cell membranedContents of vesicle are released to the outside of the celliiiThe formation of bonds when the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane requiresATP.BEndocytosisiWhen the cell takes in large molecules or large amounts of a substanceiiUses/ FunctionsaUptake of nutrients and extracellular debris for digestionbRetrieval of membrane regions added to the plasma membrane duringexocytosiscRegulation of composition of membrane proteins to alter cellular processesiiiBasically the reverse of exocytosisaPart of the plasma membraneinvaginates(folds inward) and encompasses theexternal substances needed by the cell; the plasma membrane then wraps all theway around and fuses to itself.bThe formation of those bonds requires ATP.3Describe the endocytotic processes of phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated transport.
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bPinocytosisiMeans “cell drinking”iiCell internalizes droplets of interstitial fluid containing dissolved solutes.iiiMultiple small vesicles are formed.ivMost cells perform pinocytosis.vEx. Cells of a capillary wall pinocytose fluid from blood plasma.cReceptor-mediated endocytosisiMoves specific molecules from interstitial environment into a cell after they first bind to areceptoriiAllows cell to obtain bulk quantities of certain substances, even if they aren’t veryconcentrated in interstitial fluidiiiStepsASpecific molecules attach to their specific integral membrane protein receptors, forming aligand-receptor complex.

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