b.Margaret is a personification of retribution, bloody justice for the crimes done in previous plays i.Her revenge speech personifies R3 as “hell’s black intelligencer,” collecting souls for hell but also collecting guilt of his own ii.The princes in the tower are referenced repeatedly 1.They serve as a rallying point against R32.R3 has ‘awakened the conscience of england’ - lectureThe Tudor reign 1.Hall’s chronicle of the war of the roses is what shakespeare used to write his histories 2.Richmond (Henry Tudor, Henry VII)a.Pronounces peace at end of the play
b.Did shakespeare believe in richard being a scourge??
The Politics of Theater and the Theater of Politics 1.Plays can dramatize politics, go behind the scenes to see what actually happened a.Entertainment from seeing this b.Political power is theater i.Richard’s smear campaign against nephews and brother (claiming them to be bastards) ii.R3 pretending to be devout iii.Shakespeare gives triumphant ending (divine intervention) but also depicts politics as theater as if to ask audience to not believe the ending 1.Reflect on what histories are given and if they can be believed 2.Act 3.6 - hastings is condemned through a written record before he even has a trial, history is written before it has happened Richard Undone 1.Richard’s dream: despair and die a.Characters are given a scene before their deaths to slow things down, give weight to the sins being committed b.Richard wakes up and realizes his guilt i.Very different from the R3 at the beginning of the play “I am myself alone” to “there is no creature loves me”
He is responsible for his own undoing, has proven himself only human. Are we meant to sympathize? At this moment, he turns human so that theaudience may start to pity his fall 1.The audience was originally seduced by R3, awakens our conscience as well 2.In Ian McKellen movie, R3 returns to the original character we saw in the beginning of the play a.“Conscience is but a word that cowards use” b.IRL, R3’s body was mutilated after death, put on public display and refused a proper burial