The internal consistency of this scale was high in

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The internal consistency of this scale was high in this study ( α = .79). Self-discrepancies for physical characteristics . The Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIQ; Cash & Szymanski, 1995) was used to measure weighted self-perceived dis- crepancies (i.e., self-discrepancies from and importance of internalized ideals) for multiple physical characteristics. Those physical characteristics include height, skin complexion, hair texture and thickness, facial features, muscle tone and defini- tion, body proportions,weight, chest size, physical strength, and physical coordina- tion. The discrepancy is rated on a scale from –1 to 3, and importance is rated on a scale from 0 to 3. As weighted discrepancies, scores of discrepancies and impor- tance are multiplied and summed. Higher scores indicate greater dissatisfaction with those physical characteristics. The internal consistency revealed good reliabil- ity of this scale ( α = .77). Weight satisfaction/dissatisfaction . BMI (kg/m 2 ), which has been shown to have a high correlation with body fat, was calculated from each participant’s self-reported height and weight. Then,Ideal Body Mass Index(IBMI; ideal kg/m 2 ) was calculated from each participant’s self-reported height and ideal weight (i.e., desired weight). Based on the study by Davis and Katzman (1998), the level of weight satisfaction/ dissatisfaction was objectively determined by the absolute values of the discrep- ancybetweenBMIandIBMI.Despitethelimitationsofself-reportedheightandweight that are not measured directly, the assessment of weight satisfaction/dissatisfaction in this type of indirect method was intended to limit socially desirable responses. Self-Esteem Participants’ self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg (1965) Self-Esteem scale, which is known to be reliable and valid as a measure of global self-esteem (Silberstein, Striegel-Moore, Timko, & Rodin, 1988). This instrument consists of 10 statements with a Likert-type response scale (1 = strongly disagree , 5 = strongly agree ); Jung, Lee / BODY IMAGE & SELF-ESTEEM 357
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higher scores reflect more positive self-esteem. Example items include “I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others” and “I am able to do things as well as most other people.” In this study, the reliability of this instrument was high ( α = .86). Dieting Behavior Drive for Thinness subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-DT; Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983) was used to measure participants’ dieting behavior. Seven items with a 5-point response scale (1 = strongly disagree , 5 = strongly agree ) measured the extent to which individuals engage in dieting behavior. Example items include “I eat sweets and carbohydrates without feeling nervous,” “I feel extremely guilty after overeating,” and “I am preoccupied with the desire to be thin- ner.” The internal consistency revealed high reliability of this scale ( α = .88).
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