# Statistics the study of the probability of an event

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StatisticsThe study of the probability of an event occurringMcMurray, A.J., Pace, R.W., & Scott, D. (2004).Research: A Commonsense Approach. Southbank,Victoria: Thomson.To lend support to, or reject, a hypothesis at aparticular level of confidenceKey statistical analyses:1. Differences between groups within a sampleEg males and females2. Correlations between variablesEg between independent variables (IV) and a dependentvariable (DV)
Why ‘differences’ between groupsare importantMarket segmentation is based on differencesbetween groups of consumersOne commonly used basis for market segmentationis the discovery of differences that are the following:Statistically significantMeaningfulStable over timeActionable differences
Assessment 3SPSS data setYou need SPSS softwareSPSS is available campus library Z block labsFor external access there is a free 14 day trialversion downloadable atPart B is a test of your ability to analyse quantitativedataNo intentional implications for your researchproposal in Part AIt is separate to your own research designThe marks are for your analysisof the SPSS ‘output’No marks for simply producing output
Data analysisKey is understanding the data analysis outputThe first view of data output is likely to appeardauntingEg Assessment 3 ANOVAOnly a minority of the figures will be of interestto usWe attempt to:Simplify the dataSearch for patternsStarting with basic descriptive statistics
Frequency distributionsA count of the number of responsesassociated with different values of thevariableStudy Status92491.91005100.0FrequencyPercentSafe destination - CCFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulativePercentValidDisagree2.4.7.7-1.2.31.0-112.53.84.8-439.614.919.7-9220.631.851.6-9020.131.182.7Agree5011.217.3100.0Total28964.7100.0Missing014231.89163.6Total15835.3Total447100.0
Cross-tabulationsMerges the ‘frequencies’ of two variablessimultaneouslyInternet usage * Age of respondents CrosstabulationCount2217441497164107711135318612411525450LightHeavyInternetusageTotal18 - 2425 - 3940-5960 yearsor ov erAge of respondentsTotal
Bar chartHorizontal or verticalUseful for plottingfrequenciesFor ordinal and nominalscalesHistogramFor interval and ratioscalesBar charts and HistogramsHow important is it that you take at least one short break in the next 67.06.05.04.03.02.01.0160140120100806040200Std. Dev = 2.08Mean = 5.7N = 236.00
Charts, graphs & tablesPie chartsFlorence NightingaleGraphically effectiveEg sales by segment> 2 slices< 7 slices
Useful for showing relationships over timeEg weekly salesUseful for showing comparisons between groups over timeEg Gap analysis12345671234567891011121314151617181920Line graphs
To recap - Measures of central tendencyMean- arithmetic averageeg 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 5, 9, 9, 17 (Add these together)57 / 11 = 5.18And if we remove the outlier (17)40/10 = 4Median- midpoint of the distributioneg 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 5, 9, 9, 17Mode- the value that occurs most oftenEg 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 5, 9, 9, 17For ordinal dataFor nominal dataFor interval/ratiodata

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Term
One
Professor
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Tags
Statistical hypothesis testing, Statistical significance, Level of measurement