G2 normal cell functions in preparation for mitosis centrosomes organelles that

G2 normal cell functions in preparation for mitosis

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G2: normal cell functions in preparation for mitosis; centrosomes= organelles that synthesize microtubules/spindles that are necessary for mitosis - Mitosis (M phase) is eukaryotic cell division - Cells leaving G2 enter mitosis, division of the nucleus-- which is followed by cytokinesis-- the division of the cell itself 1. Prophase= chromosomes condense and spindle forms; nuclear envelope dissolves 2. Metaphase= chromosomes line up at the equator; mitotic spindle forms 3. Anaphase= spindle separates the chromatids 4. Telophase= chromosomes unwind and spindle dissolves - Cytokinesis= splits the cell; contractile ring forms in furrow; furrow forms in animal cells 8.6 Cell cycle is under tight control - A series of chemical checkpoints regulate the cell cycle - Checkpoints ensure that - All DNA has replicated - DNA is not damaged - Chromosomes line up and separate properly - G1: is there a signal to divide? - S phase: is the genome properly replicated? - G2: is the genome damaged? Does the cell have the resources to undergo mitosis? - Mitosis: were the cells divided properly? - Apoptosis= programmed cell death if checkpoint is triggered Cancer= cells dividing out of control - Body loses control of cell division - Cells continue to divide when they do not need to and override the checkpoints - Tumor= when cancerous cells divide out of control and form this mass - Tumors are either benign (contained) or malignant (spreadable)
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  • Spring '16
  • Rafferty

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