The Homeland report on Michigan's Governance Approach indicates that the state worked with federal and state government, private industry as well as other concerned parties in determining and implementing a cyber-disruption Responses plan. The plan aims to ensure preparation and readiness as well as a quick and efficient response to cyber-attacks. Accordingly, the state intends to tailor emergency management approach and response to cyber incidents. The CDRP uses threat matrices in the process of moving cyber incidents along five levels of cyber escalation or de-escalation path. The key role of the Intelligence Community is to ensure the security of the United States collectively, including the citizens. Also, the supporting department of Homeland Security includes the office of Intelligence and Analysis and the private as well as territorial partners. According to studies, the role of the Intelligence community and Homeland Security is quite complex. The congress and the executive enacted new legislation resulting in the creation of new policies governing the sharing of information across the US government and the Intelligence
CYBERSECURITY GOVERNANCE 4 Committee (US Department of Transportation, 2013). Other offices are in place responsible for reaching out to businesses which are at high risk of being affected by the threats to various sectors of the economy. Furthermore, the FBI and the DHS have a sole dedication to provide homeland security with intelligence support. Importance of securing the information infrastructure Prevention of cyber-attacks is the best approach to respond or rather avoid such occurrences. Targeted cyber intrusions involve the stealing of data or unauthorized access to company information. Such attacks can compromise the image of an organization or even damage the competitive advantage. Furthermore, the economic wellbeing of a nation will be hugely impacted by exposure and damage of sensitive information (Gurusamy & Hirani, 2018). Cybersecurity will prevent such illegal access, alteration, denial of access, and identity thefts. In the long run, the government will not undergo financial issues to get back to business. Nevertheless, organizations need to ensure that the information is safe from illegal and unauthorized or unmonitored access. The research focuses on how decision making concerning cybersecurity is conducted various states apply laws, policies, structures, and processes. The trends observable form this study are as follows. The CIO, CTO, CISO, and CSO's are the key individuals in policy enforcement with regard to cybersecurity at the state-level (Department of Homeland Security, 2017). Other formal mechanisms to adapt strategy include the application of strategic plans which guide formal mechanisms to allow the states to address any changing conditions. However, on the other hand, formal mechanisms for cross-organizational collaboration in development enables collaboration
CYBERSECURITY GOVERNANCE 5
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