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50% Muslims/ 50% Christians.Built schools to help maintain the local culture in the societyBeirut was the mountain with the majority of Christians. Main market city and neighboring territories (missionary movement Russian orthodox, Catholic , Prodestant from British) Very educational country. Many printing presses were with the missionary, third commercial country in all the Arab (ottoman) countriesCairo was no longer under direct Turkish rule, they were under British but they allowed Egyptian modern life style. News papers, women movement all allowed. More essential to the Arab awakening then the other 2, big change, almost most movies are Egyptian. Cario was under British domination, King of Egypt opened Opra house, schools, newspapers. Ottoman present in Egypt allowed for this type of situation where British ruled Egypt was pretty good/democratic. Schools, modernizing language, women movement, printing press, theatre, books, mediaEnd of Arab Presence in Spain 1492Arab Renaissance – AnnahdaSecond lectureEight manifestations of the Arab Renaissance:1.Arab Literature2.Arab Media: newspapers, publishing, radio, television3.Arab Language4.Arab Women 5.Arab Painting and Sculpture6.Arab Cinema7.Arab Music8.Arab politicsTimeline(1798) House foundation-----(1850) Printing languages books/schools/media……..
Generation defined as a couple getting their first child and the child is second generation (25 years)1918 and forward is the most creative periodDefintion Jurgen HabermasAl-Nahda or an-Nahdah, (Arabic for “awakening” or “renaissance”), a cultural rebirth of the Arabs that began in the 19thcentury in Egypt, Lebanon, and Syria, and later in other Arabic-speaking regions. It is a period of intellectual modernization and reform. This period has no definite end. The Nahda started by the cultural shock triggered by Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798, and the reformist drive of Muhammed Ali Pasha and his dynasty.It was also a cultural reform program that was dan indigenous as it was Western inspired, linked to the Ottoman Reforms and internal changed in political economy and communal reformations in Egypt Syria and Lebanon.Rifa’a el-Tahtawi (1801-1873)a pioneering figure of An-Nahda. Was a Muslim clergy, sent to Paris in 1826, held a very positive view of French society. His political views, originally influenced by the conservative at al-Azhar university in Cairo, changed on a number of matters, he advocated parliamentary democracy and women’s education.Butrus al-Bustani (1819-1893)Master and father of the Arab Renaissance, was born a LebaneseMaronite Christian. A polyglot, educator, and activist, al-Bustani was a tour de force in the Nahda centered in mid-nineteenth century Beirut. Founded the National School (al-Madrasa al-Wataniyya) in 1863 on secular principles. The school hired leading Nahda “pioneers” of Beirut and graduated a generation of Nahda thinkers. Published several school textbooks and dictionaries, founded associations with a view to forming a national elite and launched a series of appeals for national unity in his magazine.