Psychology in Action

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each of these stages are resolved is important to personality development. Anxieties arising from these early experiences are often avoided or distorted through defense mechanisms. B. Neo-Freudian/Psychodynamic Theories - Followers of Freud, who later revised his theory, are known as neo-Freudians. Three of the most influential were Adler, Jung, and Horney. While they generally agreed with many of Freud's theories, they broke away because they emphasized different issues, such as, the formation of personality in the first five years and the role of social and cultural forces. Adler emphasized the "inferiority complex" and the compensating "will-to- power." Jung introduced the "collective unconscious" and "archetypes." Horney stressed the importance of "basic anxiety" refuting Freud's "penis envy," replacing it with "power envy." C. Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theories - Critics of the psychoanalytic approach, especially Freud's theories, argue that it is difficult to test, overemphasizes biology and unconscious forces, has inadequate empirical support, is sexist, and lacks cross-cultural support. Despite these criticisms, Freud remains a notable pioneer in psychology. III. HUMANISTIC THEORIES - Humanistic theories emphasize internal experiences, thoughts, and feelings that create the individual's self-concept. A. Rogers’ Theory - Carl Rogers emphasized the importance of the self-concept, congruence, self- esteem, and unconditional positive regard. People with low self-esteem generally have poor congruence between their self concept and life experiences. B. Maslow’s - Maslow emphasized the basic goodness of human nature and a natural tendency toward self-actualization which is innate and motivates all of human behavior. C. Evaluating Humanistic Theories - Critics of the humanistic approach argue that these theories are based on naive assumptions, and have poor scientific testability and inadequate empirical evidence. In addition, their focus on description, rather than explanation, makes them narrow. IV. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORIES A. Bandura’s and Rotter’s Approaches - Bandura’s social-cognitive approach focuses on self- efficacy and reciprocal determinism, while Rotter’s locus of control theory emphasizes a person’s internal or external focus as a major determinant of personality. B. Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theory - The social/cognitive theories emphasizes the interaction between the environment and the individual, and meets the standards for scientific research by offering testable and objective hypotheses as well as operationally defined terms. critics argue that social/cognitive theories are too narrow, ignore unconscious and emotional components of personality, and overlook developmental aspects. V. BIOLOGICAL THEORIES A. Three Major Contributors Biological theories emphasize the role of the brain, neurochemistry, and genetics on personality. Recent research suggests that certain brain areas may account for certain traits such as sociability (extroversion) and shyness (introversion). Along these same lines, certain neurotransmitters that affect the level of arousal may be the source of Instructor’s Resource Guide                              Chapter 13                                         Page   147
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some personality traits. Studies show a strong influence of hereditary factors on personality, but
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