Raymond cattel distinguished two types of

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Raymond Cattel distinguished two types of intelligence Fluid Intelligence – a person’s capacity to learn new ways of solving problems (fits into any space) Crystallized Intelligence – a person’s accumulated knowledge of the world over time. (fixed) Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence tend to work together Complement one another Fluid abilities are more related to g Tend to increase in childhood Fluid peaks in adolescence, then declines Crystallized continues to grow
Other theories of Intelligence Biological Basis of Intelligence Brain size is somewhat correlated with intelligence Bigger brain tends to be related to being a “smarter” person But correlation is not equal to causation! Cerebral cortex development is slower in gifted children Compared to other children Not sure why it takes longer to develop Intelligence is located throughout the brain, but the prefrontal cortex is especially implicated In some functional brain imaging studies, brain activity is lower in the highly intelligent The brain may be more efficient or require less effort (read about the different pathways in the brain) People with higher intelligence also react more quickly Faster reaction time Related to “working” or “short-term” memory Numbers forwards and backwards (for example) How do we determine “Intelligence” ? Intelligence Testing Binet-Simon Test WW1 Army Alpha Came from Binet-Simon test(s) Army Beta Non-verbal Army Performance Scale o For those who couldn’t be tested for some reason with Alpha or Beta (or failed Beta) o Precursor to later tests Wechlser Assembled a test battery in the 1930’s comprised of subtests developed by Binet and WW1 psychologists Verbal Scale Adaption of the Standard-Binet Performance scale of Army Performance Scale
Wilhelm Stern: IQ = mental age / chronological age x 100 Wechsler: Deviation IQ = expression of IQ relative to same aged peers Eliminated age effects with Stern’s formula Average IQ = 100 The standard deviation is 15 68% of the population is between 85-115 Other IQ Tests Childhood IQ Tests Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children (WISC – IV) Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI – IV) Culture-Fair Tests Attempt to eliminate biases for people who speak different languages than those in which the WAIS/WISC have been translated (or originally written) Raven’s Progressive Matrices = most widely used Other types of tests related to IQ Standardized Tests ISTEP SAT ACT GRE MCAT Highly related to IQ Try to emphasize achievement, rather than intelligence Interwoven… IQ tests found online aren’t really good versions of Wechsler measures or other “protected” tests Have to get a professional evaluation from a licensed psychologist to get an IQ Typically can’t do it for the fun of it! Although, there is MENSA MENSA test, if score in top 2% you are “welcomed” to the MENSA organization Reliability and Validity of IQ

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